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Videos uploaded by user “Bozeman Science”
What is CRISPR?
 
07:21
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the CRISPR/Cas immune system was identified in bacteria and how the CRISPR/Cas9 system was developed to edit genomes. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Adenosine. (2009). English: Artistic rendering of a T4 bacteriophage. The colours grey and orange do not signify anything, they are just used to illustrate structure. Created for Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PhageExterior.svg E. coli Bacteria. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2016, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/niaid/16598492368/ Fioretti, B. F. Hallbauer &. (2015). English: Director, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Department of Regulation in Infection Biology. Visiting professor The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden MIMS; http://www.mpiib-berlin.mpg.de/research/regulation_in_infection_biology. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emmanuelle_Charpentier.jpg Foresman, P. S. ([object HTMLTableCellElement]). English: Line art drawing of a chimera. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chimera_(PSF).jpg Magladem96. (2014). English: Picture of DNA Base Flipping. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dna-base-flipping.svg project, C. wiki. (2014). English: Crystal Structure of Cas9 bound to DNA based on the Anders et al 2014 Nature paper. Rendition was performed using UCSF’s chimera software. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cas9_Anders_DNA_bound_structure.png Providers, P. C. (1979). English: Photomicrograph of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria, 900x Mag. A pus specimen, viewed using Pappenheim’s stain. Last century, infections by S. pyogenes claimed many lives especially since the organism was the most important cause of puerperal fever and scarlet fever. Streptococci. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Streptococcus_pyogenes.jpg RRZEicons. (2010). English: zipper, open, close. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zipper.svg UC Berkeley. (n.d.). Gene editing with CRISPR-Cas9. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=avM1Yg5oEu0
Views: 570034 Bozeman Science
Phases of Meiosis
 
08:26
In this video Paul Andersen explains the major phases of meiosis including: interphase, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, interphase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II. He explains how variation is created in the next generation through meiosis and sexual reproduction. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: File:Karyotype Color Chromosomes White Background.png, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karyotype_color_chromosomes_white_background.png. File:Mars-Male-Symbol-Pseudo-3D-Blue.svg, n.d. "File:Sky Spectral Karyotype.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 7, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sky_spectral_karyotype.png. File:Venus-Female-Symbol-Pseudo-3D-Pink.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Venus-female-symbol-pseudo-3D-pink.svg. ScienceGenetics. Español: Espermatozoide Fecunadno a Óvulo., June 25, 2010. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:06fertilizado.jpg. Unknown. English: A Sperm Cell Fertilizing an Egg Cell, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. http://www.pdimages.com/web9.htm. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sperm-egg.jpg.
Views: 1055395 Bozeman Science
The Immune System
 
13:47
Paul Andersen explains how your body protects itself from invading viruses and bacteria. He starts by describing the nonspecific immune responses of skin and inflammation. He then explains how we use antibodies to disrupt the function of antigens and mark them for destruction. He then explains both the homoral and cell-mediated immune response highlighting the importance of B and T lymphocytes. He finally describes the process of long term immunity. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 753031 Bozeman Science
Meselson-Stahl Experiment
 
04:21
Paul Andersen explains how the Meselson-Stahl experiment was used to prove that DNA copied itself through a semi-conservative process. They grew E. coli in a medium containing heavy nitrogen (N-15). They then added the E. coli to a medium containing regular nitrogen (N-14) and observed it over several generation. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 247392 Bozeman Science
Transcription and Translation
 
11:57
Paul Andersen explains the central dogma of biology. He explains how genes in the DNA are converted to mRNA through the process of transcription. He then explains how ribosomes use this message to convert the mRNA to a functioning protein. He also shows you how to decode a gene by converting the DNA to complementary mRNA and then to the specific amino acids in a protein. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1072440 Bozeman Science
DNA Replication
 
10:10
Paul Andersen explains how DNA replication ensures that each cell formed during the cell cycle has an exact copy of the DNA. He describes the Meselson-Stahl experiment and how it showed that DNA copies itself through a semi-conservative process. He then explains how multiple enzymes, like DNA polymerase, helicase, primase, ligase, and single strand binding proteins copy DNA. He also differentiates between the leading and the lagging strand. He explains how DNA is anti-parallel in nature and how eukaryotic cells have multiple origins of replication. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 844051 Bozeman Science
The Muscular System
 
05:59
Paul Andersen explains the three types of muscle found in humans; striated, smooth and cardiac muscle. He explains how actin and myosin interact to contract the sarcomere in a muscle. The sliding filament theory explains how ATP and calcium are used to contract the z disks. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 343814 Bozeman Science
The Urinary System
 
06:32
In this video Paul Andersen gives an overview of the human urinary system. The system consist of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidneys excrete waste from the blood in urine. He explains how the nephron is responsible for filtration, secretion, and reabsorption of material in the blood. He details all of the elements of the nephron including; the renal corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct. Urine is transported from the kidney to the bladder for storage in the ureters. It then enters the environment through the urethra. The urinary system maintains homeostasis through hormonal control. Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: [1, J. M. i N. (2010). English: Urinary system. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Urinary_system.svg EN DE PL, P. M. J. P. (2006). English: Structures of the kidney: Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:KidneyStructures_PioM.svg en:User:Markhamilton. (Unsure). Exquisite sample of urine produced after a long game of chess. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Weewee.JPG Fischer, A. by H. (2013). English: This image shows a cross section of a kidney. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kidney_Cross_Section.png Radons, B. (2012). English: A modern illustration of the basic physiology of a nephron within a kidney. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nephron_illustration.svg SIU SOM Histology CRR. (n.d.). Retrieved December 29, 2016, from http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/crr/RN033b.htm Turbotorque. (2011). human urine in specimen container. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Urine_sample.JPG
Views: 191514 Bozeman Science
Gene Regulation
 
10:06
031 - Gene Regulation Paul Andersen explains how genes are regulated in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. He begins with a description of the lac and trp operon and how they are used by bacteria in both positive and negative response. He also explains the importance of transcription factors in eukaryotic gene expression. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Bioinformatik, English: Jawahar Swaminathan and MSD staff at the European Bioinformatics InstituteDeutsch: Jawahar Swaminathan und MSD Mitarbeiter am Europäischen Institut für BioinformatikPlattdüütsch: Jawahar Swaminathan un de Lüüd von MSD an dat Europääsche Institut för. English: Cartoon Representation of the Molecular Structure of Protein Registered with 2nvw Code., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. English: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe-srv/view/images/entry/2nvw600.png, displayed on http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe-srv/view/entry/2nvw/summary. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PDB_2nvw_EBI.jpg. DNA, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/58543/dna-by-kumar35885. "File:E Coli at 10000x, Original.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 13, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:E_coli_at_10000x,_original.jpg&oldid=478393073. "File:Glass of Milk on Tablecloth.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glass_of_milk_on_tablecloth.jpg. "File:Lac operon1.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lac_operon1.png. "File:Protein TBP PDB 1c9b.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Protein_TBP_PDB_1c9b.png. "File:Ribosome mRNA Translation En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ribosome_mRNA_translation_en.svg. Forluvoft. Simple Cartoon of Transcription Termination, October 9, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_termination1.svg. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1096536 Bozeman Science
Solving Hardy Weinberg Problems
 
11:08
Paul Andersen shows you how to solve simple Hardy-Weinberg problems. He starts with a brief description of a gene pool and shows you how the formula is derived. He then shows you how to solve a couple of sample problems. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 818663 Bozeman Science
Operon
 
10:01
PhET Simulation Gene Machine: The Lac Operon http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/gene-machine-lac-operon In this video Paul Andersen describes the elements of an operon. The promoter allows the RNA polymerase to transcribe the required genes. The operator and repressor regulate the expression of the genes by blocking the RNA polymerase. The genes for a specific task are all located in sequence so that they can all be transcribed at once. He starts be describing how the lac operon can be initiated to break down lactose. He then explains how the trp operon can be activated to create tryptophan. He ends with a simulation of the lac operon. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All images are either Public Domain or Creative Commons Attribution Licenses: "File:André Lwoff Nobel.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 4, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Andr%C3%A9_Lwoff_nobel.jpg. kumar35885. Simple DNA for Illustrations, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/58543/dna-by-kumar35885. "File:François Jacob Nobel.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 4, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fran%C3%A7ois_Jacob_nobel.jpg. "File:Jacques Monod Nobel.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 4, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jacques_Monod_nobel.jpg. "Gene Machine: The Lac Operon." PhET. Accessed February 4, 2013. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/gene-machine-lac-operon.
Views: 584751 Bozeman Science
Cellular Respiration
 
14:14
Paul Andersen covers the processes of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration. He starts with a brief description of the two processes. He then describes the important parts of the mitochondria. He explains how energy is transferred to ATP through the processes of glycolysis, the Kreb cycle and the Electron Transport Chain. He also explains how organisms use both lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1468500 Bozeman Science
X Inactivation
 
06:23
Paul Andersen explains how X inactivation works in mammals. This process was first described by Mary Lyon. Each cell in a female will have on activated and one inactivated X chromosome. This explains why almost all calico cats are female. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 144918 Bozeman Science
Meiosis
 
09:17
Paul Andersen explains how the process of meiosis produces variable gametes. He starts with a brief discussion of haploid and diploid cells. He compares and contrasts spermatogenesis and oogenesis. He explains how each person is different due to independent assortment, crossing over and random fertilization. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 504393 Bozeman Science
The Endocrine System
 
13:47
Paul Andersen explains the major elements in the endocrine system. He explains how glands produce hormones which target cells. He differentiates between water soluble and lipid soluble hormones. He then describes the hormones and actions of ten glands; pineal, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, testes and ovaries. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1330562 Bozeman Science
Interstitial Fluid
 
04:54
Paul Andersen explains the importance and location of interstitial fluid. He describes both the hydrostatic and osmotic pressures that move fluid between the interstitial fluid and the capillary. He also explains the major function of the fluid for the movement of material into and out of the cell. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 324230 Bozeman Science
Viruses
 
08:06
Life on Earth 003 - Viruses Paul Andersen describes the important characteristics of viruses. He starts with a brief description of origin theories. He then describes the two characteristics of all viruses; genetic information and protein coats. He also describes how some viruses use specialized envelopes to gain entry to their host cells. He also explains the lytic and lysogenic reproductive cycles. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 303513 Bozeman Science
Integumentary System
 
07:32
In this video Paul Andersen details the important structures and functions of the integumentary system. The integumentary system includes the skin, hair and nails in humans. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Accountalive. English: Nail Anatomy (e.g. Fingernail). Labels in German., October 14, 2011. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nail_anatomy_de.svg. Basquetteur. English: Dumb Version without Legend for Reuse in Other Languages If Desired, January 30, 2009. Own work by uploader derived from fingernail label.jpg in English wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fingernail-Anatomia-externa-dumb2.png. Benutzer:Goodbye. Deutsch: Gruebchenbildung, April 4, 2006. Self-photographed. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gruebchenbildung.jpg. Bezrukov, Victor. Reflected Sadness, May 3, 2008. reflected sadness. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reflected_sadness.jpg. BruceBlaus. English: Dermal Circulation. See a Related Animation of This Medical Topic., January 29, 2014. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blausen_0802_Skin_DermalCirculation.png. ———. English: Epidermis. See a Full Animation of This Medical Topic., January 29, 2014. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blausen_0353_Epidermis.png. ———. English: Lamellated Corpuscle. See a Full Animation of This Medical Topic., January 29, 2014. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blausen_0804_Skin_LamellatedCorpuscle.png. College, OpenStax. English: Illustration from Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web Site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013., April 2, 2013. Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:408_Connective_Tissue.jpg. en.wikipedia, Original uploader was D. Wu at. English: This Is Step VII Cut out from :Image:Gray2.png. The Original Copyright Is Duplicated Below., July 20, 2005. Transferred from en.wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Telophase.jpg. "File:Blackhair10.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 28, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blackhair10.jpg. "File:Blausen 0438 HairFollicleAnatomy 02.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blausen_0438_HairFollicleAnatomy_02.png. "File:Human Nail Anatomy.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Human_nail_anatomy.jpg. information, This file is lacking author. Fingernails2, December 8, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fingernails.JPG. r.granit. Animal and Plant Cell Cytokiness Diagram, April 3, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cytokinesis.png. User:Gruzd. Lizard Skin of Lacerta Agilis, June 22, 2007. Own work (own picture). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lacertae_skin.jpg. Vignoni, David. From GNOME Version of Nuvola. Not Included in the KDE PNG Version., December 6, 2005. http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources/gnome-themes-extras/0.9/gnome-themes-extras-0.9.0.tar.gz. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gtk-media-rewind-ltr.svg.
Views: 429222 Bozeman Science
Photosynthesis
 
12:27
Paul Andersen explains the process of photosynthesis by which plants and algae can convert carbon dioxide into useable sugar. He begins with a brief description of the chloroplast. He describes the major pigments in a plant (like chlorophyll a and b). He then describes both the light reaction and the Calvin cycle. He finishes with a discussion of photorespiration and strategies for avoiding this problem evolved in CAM and C4 plants. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 2019951 Bozeman Science
Signal Transduction Pathways
 
09:25
038 - Signal Transduction Pathways.mov Paul Andersen explains how signal transduction pathways are used by cells to convert chemical messages to cellular action. Epinephrine is used as a sample messenger to trigger the release of glucose from cells in the liver. The G-Protein, adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and protein kinases are all used as illustrative examples of signal transduction. A review of the concepts is also included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Dora and Boots.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dora_and_Boots.jpg&oldid=468219594. "File:Jimi Hendrix 1967 Uncropped.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jimi_Hendrix_1967_uncropped.jpg. "File:MarshallStack Slayer.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MarshallStack_Slayer.jpg. "File:Pickup-SSH.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pickup-SSH.jpg. Juancoronado1974. English: Phospholipid Bilayer, November 23, 2013. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bilayer.png.
Views: 876081 Bozeman Science
The Brain
 
13:56
The Brain: Structure and Function In this video Paul Andersen explains the structures and functions of seventeen major parts of the brain. He begins with a quick discussion of brain evolution and ends with a review of the major parts presented inside the brainstem, cerebellum, thalamus, and cerebrum. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Angelo.romano. SVG Drawing Representing a Number of Sports Icons: Ice Hockey, Athletcs, Basketball and Football (soccer), October 2, 2007. self-made with Inkscape, starting from a number of existing SVG drawings taken from the Wikimedia Commons (namely, Image:Basketball ball.svg, Image:Soccer ball.svg and vectorized versions of Image:Olympic pictogram Ice hockey.png and Image:Olympic pictogram Athletics.png. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:All_sports_drawing.svg. Bradley, M M, and P J Lang. "Measuring Emotion: The Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential." Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 25, no. 1 (March 1994): 49--59. caustic, lunar. Approximately 6 Weeks from Conception, I.e. 8 Weeks from LMP. Shot with 105 Mm Micro-NIKKOR Lens with 2 off Camera SB-800's. Specimen Is Submerged in Alcohol. This Is a Spontaneous (ie. Not a Termination) Abortion. It Was Extruded Intact with the Gestational Sac Surrounded by Developing Placental Tissue and Decidual Tissue. This Was Carefully Opened to Avoid Damaging the Embryo., January 23, 2009. Embryo. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Embryo_-_Approximately_8_weeks_estimated_gestational_age.jpg. College, OpenStax. Illustration from Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web Site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1810_Major_Pituitary_Hormones.jpg. Dobschütz, Sigismund von. Deutsch: Welpe, May 27, 2011. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Welpe_2011.JPG. "File:1421 Sensory Homunculus.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 19, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1421_Sensory_Homunculus.jpg. "File:Animal Diversity.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Animal_diversity.png. "File:Basal Ganglia Circuits.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, January 27, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Basal_ganglia_circuits.svg&oldid=469762706. "File:Bilaterian-Plan.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bilaterian-plan.svg. "File:Corpus Callosum.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 19, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Corpus_callosum.png. "File:EmbryonicBrain.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EmbryonicBrain.svg. "File:Lobes of the Brain NL.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 19, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lobes_of_the_brain_NL.svg. "File:Skull and Brain Normal Human.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Skull_and_brain_normal_human.svg. "File:Tiburón.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed February 18, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tibur%C3%B3n.jpg. GerryShaw. English: Cortical Neuron Stained with Antibody to Neurofilament Subunit NF-L in Green. In Red Are Neuronal Stem Cells Stained with Antibody to Alpha-Internexin. Image Created Using Antibodies from EnCor Biotechnology Inc., February 4, 2000. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_in_tissue_culture.jpg. Government, U. S. The Seal of the President of the United States. The Blazon Is Defined in Executive Order 10860 As:, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Extracted from PDF version of Federal Assistance for Impacted Communities guide, archived here, with some small cleanups. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US-President-Seal.svg. Griffiths, Si. English: Brick Wall, March 12, 2005. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brick_Wall.jpg. Hagens, Wouter. English: Kitten about 2 Months Old, December 3, 2013. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20131203_kitten_B.jpg. Häggström, Mikael. English: Organ Adapted for Use in Häggström Diagrams, January 16, 2008. Image:Gray970.png (Public domain license). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heart_and_lung.gif. illustrator, Patrick J. Lynch, medical. Brain Human Sagittal Section, December 23, 2006. Patrick J. Lynch, medical illustrator.
Views: 1985987 Bozeman Science
Epigenetics
 
09:21
Paul Andersen explains the concepts of genetics. He starts with a brief discussion of the nature vs. nurture debate and shows how epigenetics blurs this distinction. He explains how differentiation of cell types results from the inactivation of certain genes. He describes the three processes of epigenetics: DNA methylation, Histone acteylation and microRNA. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All images are either Public Domain or Creative Commons Attribution Licenses: "File:DNA Methylation.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_methylation.jpg. "File:Earrr.JPG." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 1, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Earrr.JPG. "File:Epigenetic Mechanisms.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 3, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Epigenetic_mechanisms.jpg. "File:Hela Cells Image 3709-PH.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hela_Cells_Image_3709-PH.jpg. "File:HeLa Cells Stained with Hoechst 33258.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 2, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HeLa_cells_stained_with_Hoechst_33258.jpg. "File:MiRNA.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 3, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MiRNA.svg. GM, Cooper. English: Histone Acetylation, January 13, 2013. Cooper GM. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9904/. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ch6f32.jpg. kumar35885. Simple DNA for Illustrations, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/58543/dna-by-kumar35885. Rosa, Gilberto Santa. Beautiful Lips., March 25, 2006. originally posted to Flickr as Lips ...............DSCF6115a_picnikbw/soft. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beautiful_lips.jpg. SheLovesGhosts. Deutsch: Zentrale Heterochromie: Grüne Iris, Um Die Pupille Herum Jedoch Ein Braun-gelber Ring, March 5, 2009. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iris_centralheterochromy.jpg.
Views: 165908 Bozeman Science
The Digestive System
 
09:38
Paul Andersen starts with a brief description of feeding methods. He then details all of the major parts within the human digestive system. This tour starts in the mouth, move down the esophagus, through the stomach, small investing, colon and rectum. He explains how all of the major macromolecules are digested and absorbed by the body. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 523364 Bozeman Science
Lipids
 
07:05
In this video Paul Andersen describes the lipids (of the fats). He explains how they are an important source of energy but are also required to cell membranes. He explains how the hydrocarbon tails in triglycerides contain energy available for life. He also explains how phospholipids construct, and cholesterol molecules main the cell membrane. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 531642 Bozeman Science
DNA Fingerprinting
 
06:10
Paul Andersen describes the process of DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling. He explains how variability in STRs can be used to identify individuals. He explains the importance of DNA fingerprinting in forensics and paternity cases. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 429392 Bozeman Science
Proteins
 
09:16
Paul Andersen explains the structure and importance of proteins. He describes how proteins are created from amino acids connected by dehydration synthesis. He shows the importance of chemical properties in the R-groups of individual amino acids in the polypeptide. He explains the four levels of protein folding and gives you an opportunity to fold proteins of your own using the game Foldit: Download the video game foldit here: http://fold.it/portal/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 790043 Bozeman Science
Plant Control
 
07:54
Paul Andersen explains how plants use hormones to respond to their environment. The following hormones are detailed; auxin, cytokinins, gibberelins, abscisic acid and ethylene. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 150030 Bozeman Science
Endosymbiosis
 
07:01
Paul Andersen explains how eukaryotic cells were formed through a process of endosymbiosis. He describes how aerobic bacteria became mitochondria and cyanobacteria became chloroplasts. He mentions an example of symbiosis that occurs today and mentions the importance of Dr. Lynn Margulis in the development of this modern theory. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 211268 Bozeman Science
The Action Potential
 
14:07
In this video Paul Andersen details the action potential in neurons. The resting potential of a neuron (-70mV) is maintained through differences in concentration and permeability of Na, K, and Cl ions. A graded potential is created as neurotransmitters from adjacent cells that are either excitatory or inhibitory. If the neuron reaches the threshold of -55mV an opening of voltage-gated sodium channels triggers an action potential that may affect other connected neurons. PhET neuron simulation - https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/neuron Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: 1280px-Muscle_Tissue_(1).svg.png (1280×960). (n.d.). Retrieved December 13, 2016, from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f9/Muscle_Tissue_(1).svg/1280px-Muscle_Tissue_(1).svg.png Dirgxtreme. (2015). English: reflex loop signal. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reflex_arc_signal.jpg Helixitta. (2015). Українська: Переклад англійською File:Propagation of action potential along myelinated nerve fiber.png. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Propagation_of_action_potential_along_myelinated_nerve_fiber_en.svg holder, L. (2011). English: A 9V, AA, AAA, AAAA battery in close proximity for comparisisation porpoises. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AAAA_AAA_AA_9V_comparison-1.jpg Indolences. (2007). Image:Traffic lights 3 states.png. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Traffic_lights_3_states.svg Jana, D. (2016). English: Myelinated neurons are faster than unmyelinated neurons because of Saltatory motion. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Saltatory_Conduction.gif LadyofHats. (2007). English: Complete neuron cell diagram. Neurons (also known as neurones and nerve cells) are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information. In vertebrate animals, neurons are the core components of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Complete_neuron_cell_diagram_en.svg OpenStax. (2016a). Version 8.25 from the Textbook. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1221_Action_Potential.jpg OpenStax. (2016b). Version 8.25 from the Textbook. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1224_Post_Synaptic_Potential_Summation.jpg OpenStax. (2016c). Version 8.25 from the Textbook. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1224_Post_Synaptic_Potential_Summation.jpg section, S. user in the "File history". (See the date of the upload in the “File history” section.). This image (basic representation of banana) has been created as part of the WikiVoc Project and released under Public Domain license. These illustrations can be used for various purposes, such as language dictionaries, flash cards, etc. Other such images can be found in the WikiVoc images category. Anyone can assist us in this project, so please help us out. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WikiVoc-banana.svg Wikipedia, Q. J. at E. (2009). English: Recreated :File:Neuron-no labels2.png in Inkscape and hand-tuned to reduce filesize. Created by Quasar (talk) 19:59, 11 August 2009 (UTC). Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_Hand-tuned.svg
Views: 214500 Bozeman Science
What are Chromosomes?
 
05:35
In this video Paul Andersen answers this question about chromosomes. He explains how the base pairs of DNA form genes which are organized into the chromosomes of the overall genome. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: CSc, Doc RnDr Josef Reischig. English: Human Karyotype: Karyotype Human 45,XY t1-17 (mosaic). Optical Microscopy Technique: Negative Phase Contrast. Magnification: 6000x (for Picture Width 26 Cm ~ A4 Format)., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Author's archive. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_karyotype_(263_19)_Karyotype_Human_45,XY_t1-17_(mosaic).jpg. File:Mars-Male-Symbol-Pseudo-3D-Blue.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mars-male-symbol-pseudo-3D-blue.svg. File:Venus-Female-Symbol-Pseudo-3D-Pink.svg, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Venus-female-symbol-pseudo-3D-pink.svg. KES47, File:Chromosome-es svg: English: Graphic Decomposition of a Chromosome (found in the Cell Nucleus), to the Bases Pair of the DNA., July 10, 2010. File:Chromosome-es.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chromosome_en.svg. LadyofHats, Mariana Ruiz Villarreal. English: A Diagram of a Typical Prokaryotic Cell. This Diagram, Made in Adobe Illustrator, Is an Improved Version of a Similar Diagram, Image:Prokaryote Cell Diagram.svg, Which Was Also Made by LadyofHats. Besides General Appearance Changes, This Version Adds Plasmids and Pili, and Notes That DNA Is Circular., March 2, 2008. Own work (Source: Typical prokaryotic cell, Chapter 4: Mutagenicity of alkyl N-acetoxybenzohydroxamates, Concept 1: Common Features of All Cells, Cells - Structure and Function). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Average_prokaryote_cell-_en.svg. Szczepan1990, MesserWoland and. Azərbaycanca: Tipik Heyvan Hüceyrəsinin Qurluş Sxemi., October 15, 2006. Own work (Inkscape created). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Biological_cell.svg.
Views: 234210 Bozeman Science
Phases of Mitosis
 
10:42
In this video Paul Andersen explains the importance of mitosis and details the major steps in the cell cycle. He explains the importance of Interphase, Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophases, and Cytokinesis. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: al, George von Dassow et. English: Time-Lapse Microscopy Video of Untreated 16-Cell Purple Urchin Embryo with EMTB-3G (microtubules) in Shown Cyan and mC-H2B (chromatin) in Yellow., [object HTMLTableCellElement]. http://www.cellimagelibrary.org/images/15792. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Time-lapse_video_of_16-cell_purple_urchin_embryo,_CIL15792.ogv. "File:Cell Cycle 2-2.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 5, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cell_Cycle_2-2.svg. García, Luis Fernández. English: Meristem in the Apex of Onion Root, March 25, 2007. Luis Fernández García. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meristemo_apical_1.jpg. Kelvinsong. English: The Prometaphase Stage of Mitosis. Cells Extracted from My Cell Cycle Diagram., December 9, 2012. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prometaphase.svg. ———. English: The Prophase Stage of Mitosis. Cells Extracted from My Cell Cycle Diagram., December 9, 2012. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prophase.svg. Manske, Magnus. English: Different Levels of DNA Condensation. (1) Single DNA Strand. (2) Chromatin Strand (DNA with Histones). (3) Chromatin during Interphase with Centromere. (4) Condensed Chromatin during Prophase. (Two Copies of the DNA Molecule Are Now Present) (5) Chromosome during Metaphase., October 21, 2002. Nupedia, then en.wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chromatin_chromosome.png.
Views: 710777 Bozeman Science
The Respiratory System
 
08:46
Paul Andersen starts this video with a description of the respiratory surface. He explains how worms, insects, fish and mammals take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. He then tours the major organs of the respiratory system; from the pharynx to the trachea, bronchus, bronchiole and alveoli. He also explains how oxygen is carried on the hemoglobin and how carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 610084 Bozeman Science
Genetic Recombination and Gene Mapping
 
09:50
In this video Paul Andersen explains how the frequency of recombination between linked genes can be used to determine the relative location of genes on a chromosome. Thomas Hunt Morgan and Alfred Strutevant used the fruit fly to develop a theory of chromosomal inheritance and discover crossing over. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Drosophila Repleta Lateral.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drosophila_repleta_lateral.jpg. "File:Morgan Crossover 1.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Morgan_crossover_1.jpg. "File:Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed March 13, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Hunt_Morgan.jpg. "FlyBase," n.d. http://flybase.org/reports/FBgn0003975.html. spax89. Illustration of a Tobacco Pipe, 2009. Extracted from Media:Blason de la ville de Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie (30).svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tobacco_pipe.svg.
Views: 549817 Bozeman Science
Le Chatelier's Principle
 
07:01
066 - Le Chatelier's Principle In this video Paul Andersen explains how Le Chatelier's Principle can be used to predict the effect of disturbances to equilibrium. When a reversible reaction is at equilibrium disturbances (in concentration, temperature, pressure, etc.) will be offset to reach a new equilibrium. For examples when more reactants are added the reaction will move to the right to reestablish the equilibrium constant. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Eframgoldberg. English: An Overlay of the Same 99.9% Pure NO2/N2O4 Sealed in an Ampoule. From Left to Right -196C, 0C, 23C, 35C, 50C, July 16, 2013. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen_dioxide_at_different_temperatures.jpg. en:User:Greenhorn1. English: Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) on the Left and Dinitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4) on the Right., February 25, 2008. en:Image:N02-N2O4.jpg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NO2-N2O4.jpg. "File:Ammonia-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 3, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ammonia-3D-vdW.png. "File:Dinitrogen-Tetroxide-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 3, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dinitrogen-tetroxide-3D-vdW.png. "File:Tetrachlorocobaltate Aqueous Ion.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 3, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tetrachlorocobaltate_aqueous_ion.jpg. yinch. English: SVG Version of Nitrogen Molecule., November 25, 2010. Produced in Inkscape. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen2.svg.
Views: 263156 Bozeman Science
The Nervous System
 
17:39
041 - Animal Nervous System Paul Andersen begins this podcast with a discussion of brain lateralization and gives a brief demonstration of tests that were performed on split-brain individuals. He then discusses the major parts of a neuron and explains how action potentials are generated using voltage-gated ion channels. He explains how neurotransmitters transmit messages across a synapse and how these messages can be either inhibitory or excitatory. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Bananas, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/20182/bananas-by-pitr. "File:Action Potential Vert.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Action_potential_vert.png. "File:Butyric-Acid-3D-Balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Butyric-acid-3D-balls.png. "File:Hemispheres.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hemispheres.png. "File:Neuron Hand-Tuned.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_Hand-tuned.svg. "File:Synapse diag1.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Synapse_diag1.svg. Flower 7 Colors, n.d. http://all-free-download.com/free-vector/vector-clip-art/flower_7_colors_145142.html. Saltcellar, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/4452/saltcellar-by-pipo. Sun, n.d. http://openclipart.org/detail/126151/sun-by-viscious-speed.
Views: 656780 Bozeman Science
Plant Structure
 
13:37
Paul Andersen explains the major plants structures. He starts with a brief discussion of monocot and dicot plants. He then describes the three main tissues in plants; dermal, ground and vascular. He also describes the plant cells within each of these tissues; epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerencyma, xylem and phloem. He describes both primary and secondary growth in plants. He finishes the podcast with a discussion of double fertilization in plants. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 419705 Bozeman Science
Chi-squared Test
 
11:53
Paul Andersen shows you how to calculate the ch-squared value to test your null hypothesis. He explains the importance of the critical value and defines the degrees of freedom. He also leaves you with a problem related to the animal behavior lab. This analysis is required in the AP Biology classroom. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 1214100 Bozeman Science
DNA and RNA - Part 2
 
10:00
027 - DNA and RNA - Part 2 Paul Andersen continues his description of DNA and RNA. He begins with the structure of DNA and RNA and moves into the process of DNA Replication. He also describes the central dogma of biology explaining how DNA is transcribed to mRNA and is finally translated into proteins. He also introduces genetic engineering and explains how transformation is used to create insulin. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:American Beaver.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:American_Beaver.jpg. "File:Beaverlodge.JPG." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beaverlodge.JPG. "File:Biston.betularia.7200.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Biston.betularia.7200.jpg. "File:Biston.betularia.f.carbonaria.7209.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Biston.betularia.f.carbonaria.7209.jpg. "File:DNA Replication En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_replication_en.svg. "File:Inzulín.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Inzul%C3%ADn.jpg. "File:Plasmid Replication (english).svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Plasmid_replication_(english).svg. "File:Ribosome mRNA Translation En.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ribosome_mRNA_translation_en.svg. "File:Safflower.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 24, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Safflower.jpg. Forluvoft. Simple Cartoon of Transcription Initiation, October 9, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_initiation1.svg. ———. Simple Cartoon of Transcription Termination, October 9, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_termination1.svg. ———. Simple Transcription Elongation, October 9, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simple_transcription_elongation1.svg. Sponk. Deutsch: Verknüpfung Der Nukleinbasen C, G, A Und U Mit Dem Ribosephosphat-Rückgrat Der RNA, March 25, 2010. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RNA-Nucleobases.svg. Sponk, Difference_DNA_RNA-DE svg: Deutsch: Gegenüberstellung Eines RNA-Strangs Und Eines DNA-Doppelstrangs Mit Darstellung Der Jeweiligen Nukleobasen, 04:53 (UTC). Deutsch: verwendete Bilder... http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Difference_DNA_RNA-EN.svg. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 333828 Bozeman Science
Probability in Genetics: Multiplication and Addition Rules
 
10:36
Paul Andersen shows you how to use the rules of multiplication and addition to correctly solve genetics problems. The rule of multiplication can be applied to independent events in sequence. The rule of addition can be applied to mutually exclusive events. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 293407 Bozeman Science
Gibbs Free Energy
 
13:00
Paul Andersen attempts to explain Gibbs Free Energy. He begins by using three spontaneous reactions to explain how a change in enthalpy, entropy and temperature can affect the free energy of a system. He then applies this concept to cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 515150 Bozeman Science
Osmoregulation
 
08:57
Paul Andersen explains how organisms regulate their internal osmolarity or not. He starts with a brief description of osmosis and why it is important for animal cell to be surrounded by an isotonic solution. He then explains how freshwater and saltwater fish osmoregulate. He finally discussed the nephron within the kidney as an osmoregulatory organ. He explains how the loop of Henle sets up a gradient which is used to reclaim or remove water with the use of the antidiuretic hormone (or ADH). Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 238566 Bozeman Science
The Neuron
 
05:15
In this video Paul Andersen explains the basic anatomy of a neuron; including the dendrites, cell body, axon hillock, axon, and axon terminal. He also describes how neurons are classified both structurally and functionally. Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Haas, P. svg: J. work: J. (2012). English: 1: Unipolar neuron 2: Bipolar neuron 3: Multipolar neuron 4: Pseudounipolar neuron. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neurons_uni_bi_multi_pseudouni.svg Laurentaylorj. (2013). English: As a nerve impulse travels down the axon, there is a change in polarity across the membrane. The Na+ and K+ gated ion channels open and close in response to a signal from another neuron. At the beginning of action potential, the Na+ gates open and Na+ moves into the axon. This is depolarization. Repolarization occurs when the K+ gates open and K+ moves outside the axon. This creates a change in polarity between the outside of the cell and the inside. The impulse continuously travels down the axon in one direction only, through the axon terminal and to other neurons. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Action_Potential.gif Mentatseb. (2009). English: The brain network of the C.Elegans worm; data computed by D.Watts and S.Strogatz; map spatialized from Gephi. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:C.elegans-brain-network.jpg Neuron 1.1.1. (n.d.). Retrieved December 20, 2016, from https://phet.colorado.edu/sims/html/neuron/latest/neuron_en.html tiZom, O. by en:User:Chris 73 by. ([object HTMLTableCellElement]). English: Schematic of an action potential. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Action_potential.svg Wikipedia, Q. J. at E. (2009). English: Recreated :File:Neuron-no labels2.png in Inkscape and hand-tuned to reduce filesize. Created by Quasar (talk) 19:59, 11 August 2009 (UTC). Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_Hand-tuned.svg العربية: الجهاز العصبي.Deutsch: Nervensystem.English: Nervous system.Français : Système nerveux. (2010). Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:TE-Nervous_system_diagram.svg
Views: 155935 Bozeman Science
Student's t-test
 
10:11
Excel file: https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/561402/TTEST.xls In this video Paul Andersen explains how to run the student's t-test on a set of data. He starts by explaining conceptually how a t-value can be used to determine the statistical difference between two samples. He then shows you how to use a t-test to test the null hypothesis. He finally gives you a separate data set that can be used to practice running the test. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: 1.3.6.7.2. Critical Values of the Student’s-t Distribution. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/eda/section3/eda3672.htm File:Hordeum-barley.jpg - Wikimedia Commons. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2016, from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hordeum-barley.jpg Keinänen, S. (2005). English: Guinness for strenght. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Guinness.jpg Kirton, L. (2007). English: Footpath through barley field. A well defined and well used footpath through the fields at Nuthall. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Footpath_through_barley_field_-_geograph.org.uk_-_451384.jpg pl.wikipedia, U. W. on. ([object HTMLTableCellElement]). English: William Sealy Gosset, known as “Student”, British statistician. Picture taken in 1908. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William_Sealy_Gosset.jpg The T-Test. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/stat_t.php
Views: 280256 Bozeman Science
Entropy
 
07:05
057 - Entropy In this video Paul Andersen explains that entropy is simply the dispersion of matter or energy. He begins with a series of video that show the natural direction of processes. According to the second law of thermodynamics the entropy may never decrease in a closed system. In irreversible processes the entropy will increase over time. The entropy will increase as volume increases, phases change, temperature increases and as the moles of products increases. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: AJ. A Red Balloon on a Ribbon, July 18, 2008. Open clip Art Library image's page. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_toy_balloon.svg. Ebaychatter0. English: Sport Car, October 3, 2012. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Orange_sport_car.svg. "File:Dinitrogen-Tetroxide-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dinitrogen-tetroxide-3D-vdW.png. "File:Nitrogen-Dioxide-3D-vdW.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen-dioxide-3D-vdW.png. "File:Oxygen Molecule.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oxygen_molecule.png. "File:Water-3D-Balls.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Water-3D-balls.png. Forluvoft. Simple Diagram of Double-Stranded DNA, [object HTMLTableCellElement]. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_simple2.svg. penubag, F. l a n k e r. English: Nomenclature of the Phase Changes of a System in English. This Image Is Not Drawn to Scale, Meaning There Is No Association between Location and the Enthalpy of the State of Matter., October 30, 2008. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Phase_change_-_en.svg. Sharayanan. English : Depicts the Main Idea behind the Kinetic Theory of Gases — That Is, Gases Are Made of Molecules Whose Permanent Hits on the Walls of the Container Is Perceived as Pressure, and Whose Excitement Is Related to Temperature., August 8, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kinetic_theory_of_gases.svg. User:Forrestjunky, adaption of source-image by. Svg Tree Image, Based on Image:Broccoli.svg by user:Dvortygirl., March 16, 2008. Image:Broccoli.svg by Dvortigirl, converted to svg by Armada44. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Broccoli-tree.svg.
Views: 190375 Bozeman Science
Cell Communication
 
10:35
037 - Cell Communication Paul Andersen discusses cell communication. He begins by explaining how he communicates with other individuals using various forms of electronic communication. He them explains how cells communicate when the distance between them is big, small, and zero. He explains how antigen presenting cells pass information on antigen structure by touching in the immune response. He explains how neurotransmitters are used to transfer and manipulate nerve signals. And he finally explains how the endocrine system sends messages throughout the body. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Cartoon Virus Clip Art, n.d. http://www.clker.com/clipart-cartoon-virus.html. cs, Endocrine_growth_regulation svg: Mikael Häggströmderivative work: Icewalker. Čeština: Hlavní Cesta Endokrinní Regulace Růstu, Mediovaná Růstovým Hormonem a IGF-1, 14:28 (UTC). Endocrine_growth_regulation.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Endocrine_growth_regulation_cs.svg. Depot, Disk. English: Post-It Note with White Background. (Super-Sticky Genuine Original 3M Version!), (First publication). Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Post-it-note-white-bg.jpg. "File:Beta-Endorphin.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beta-endorphin.png. "File:Facebook.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Facebook.svg. "File:Lymphocyte Activation Simple.png." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lymphocyte_activation_simple.png. "File:Neuron Hand-Tuned.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Neuron_Hand-tuned.svg. "File:Robert Wadlow.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 19, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Robert_Wadlow.jpg&oldid=519347892. "File:Synapse diag1.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed December 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Synapse_diag1.svg. Google. English: Gmail Logo, May 9, 2011. Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gmail_logo.png. "Growth Hormone." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 8, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Growth_hormone&oldid=585182562. US, Ed Costello from Brooklyn, NY. Paula Radcliffe, Winner of the 2007 New York City Marathon, Photographed at Mile 14., November 4, 2007. Cropped from File:Paula Radcliffe 2007 New York marathon.jpg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paula_Brooklyn_NYCM_2007_cropped.jpg.
Views: 349900 Bozeman Science
Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis
 
13:39
028 - Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis Paul Andersen explains how the cell cycle is used to create new cells. The creation of identical diploid daughter cells, through mitosis, is described. The creation of unique haploid daughter cells, through meiosis is also described. The importance of cyclin and cyclin dependent kinases to regulate the cell cycle is included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: "File:Cell Cycle 2-2.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cell_Cycle_2-2.svg. "File:Cyclin Expression.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cyclin_Expression.svg. "File:Major Events in Mitosis.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Major_events_in_mitosis.svg. "File:Meiosis Overview.svg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meiosis_Overview.svg. File:Schmetaphase.png, n.d. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Schmetaphase.png. "File:Tinción Hematoxilina-Eosina.jpg." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tinci%C3%B3n_hematoxilina-eosina.jpg. goat, Electric. English: Simplified Illustration Created by Electric Goat. Homologous Chromosomes in Mitosis (upper) and Meiosis (bottom)., March 24, 2005. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chromosomes_in_mitosis_and_meiosis.png. User:Davepape. Desert Grassland Whiptail Lizard (w:Cnemidophorus Uniparens), at the w:Buffalo Zoo, June 16, 2006. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cnemidophorus_uniparens_(Buffalo_Zoo).jpg. Xander89. An Hourglass, May 9, 2008. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hourglass_modern.svg. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 863547 Bozeman Science
Stimulated Emission
 
03:31
137 - Stimulate Emission In this video Paul Andersen explains how stimulated emission can be used to create coherent light. When an atom absorbs a photon it moves to a higher energy level through stimulated absorption. It may then release a photon and moves to a lower energy level through spontaneous emission. However a stimulated atom at a high energy level may release to identical photons that travel coherently. An example of stimulated emission can be found in a laser. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: “Laser.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, May 16, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Laser&oldid=662529772. “Lasers.” PhET. Accessed May 17, 2015. https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/lasers. V1adis1av. Stimulated Emission, May 3, 2008. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stimulated_Emission.svg. V1adis1av, Stimulated_Emission svg: Alberoderivative work: English: Stimulated Emission, January 18, 2015. This file was derived from: Stimulated Emission.svg. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stimulated_Emission_hy.svg.
Views: 59586 Bozeman Science
Bernoulli's Equation
 
10:12
088 - Bernoulli’s Equation In the video Paul Andersen explains how Bernoulli’s Equation describes the conservation of energy in a fluid. The equation describes the pressure energy, potential energy, and kinetic energy of a fluid at a single point. A sample problem illustrating the fact that as the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure energy decreases. A discussion and application of the continuity equation is also included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: AtomicRED. English: An Animated Example of the 12-6 Curveball Pitch in Baseball, June 29, 2011. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:12-6_Curveball.gif. Pilsak, Walter J. Deutsch: Nagel, May 21, 2004. German Wikipedia. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nails.jpg. “Port.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, February 11, 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Port&oldid=646056373. Robinson, Paul. Milk Carton, October 5, 2007. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nuvola_milk_carton.svg.
Views: 243758 Bozeman Science
The Circulatory System
 
11:35
Paul Andersen surveys the circulatory system in humans. He begins with a short discussion of open and closed circulatory systems and 2,3, and 4-chambered hearts. He describes the movement of blood through the human heart and the blood vessels. He discusses the major components of blood and the cause of a heart attack. Intro Music Atribution Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License
Views: 958055 Bozeman Science
Torque
 
07:03
052 - Torque In this video Paul Andersen begins by discriminating between translation and rotational motion. He then explains how a torque is the product of the lever arm and the force perpendicular. The lever arm must be perpendicular to the axis of rotation and the force must be perpendicular to the lever arm. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: “Balancing Act.” PhET. Accessed September 4, 2014. http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/balancing-act. MidnightLightning. English: SVG Version of Adjustable Wrench.jpg, April 14, 2009. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Adjustable_wrench2.svg. Technik, RusCloud-SVG fileThe Lexikon der gesamten. English: SVG Variant of L-Door.png., September 14, 2010. Own work. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:L-doorVector.svg.
Views: 274602 Bozeman Science