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PRINCIPLES AND WORKING OF A LASER _PART 1
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. PRINCIPLES AND WORKING OF A LASER:In our earlier session we have learnt different characteristic properties of Lasers.Now let us learn about the principles of working of laser.Generally laser works in the form of process which consists of 4 important processes.They are: 1.Absorption2.Spontaneous emission3.Pumping and population inversion and4.Stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.Now let us discuss about the processes that takes place in atoms. ABSORPTION:It is well known that, atom consists of different energy states.Let us consider two energy states of an electron.Let us say ground state as Egand excited state as Ex.When electromagnetic energy falls on the atom, in the form of light photon of frequency 'v'.Whereas electromagnetic energy is equal to the difference of Eg- Ex = hv.When it energy falls on the electron, it absorbs the energy and jumps from ground state Eg to excited state Ex.SPONTANEOUS EMISSION:As we already said, electrons jump from ground state to excited state.But the excited electrons that jumped to higher energy state, doesn't remain for longer period in that state and come back to their original ground state by losing its energy in the form of photons.The photons don't have any correlation in phase and thus considered as incoherent light.Thus the release of energy by the electrons on their own is said to be as spontaneous emission.Transition of electrons from one state to another state occurs random in time.By definition,Spontaneous emission is defined as the process in which the electrons in the excited atoms are released on their own from their higher energy state to the ground state.PUMPING AND POULATION INVERSION:As we already said, the transitioned electrons don't stay for longer time in the excited state.There are electrons of some substances or systems, where they remain in the excited state for longer period.Such systems are called ACTIVE SYSTEMS or ACTIVE MEDIA.These are generally compounds or mixtures of different elements.When electrons turn into active systems, their electronic energy levels are also modified and thus it acquires some special properties.Now let us discuss them in detail.Now let us consider atom has three electronic states E1, E2, E3 in active medium.Generally electrons exist in lower state called as Ground state E1.Let us number of electrons in ground state as N1.As we already learnt., Due to the process of absorption when electromagnetic energy equal to the difference of E3 -- E1 are incident on atom, electrons jump from state 1 to the excited state 3.Due to the process of spontaneous emission, the excited electron in the E3 state remains for less period, in order of 10-8sec.Usually most of the electrons loses its energy due to spontaneous emission and returns from E3 state to E1 state. The number of electrons in this state is said to be as N1.But some of the electrons may lose very less energy E3 -E2and jump to state E2.The less emitted energy by electrons is called as Thermal energy. This energy is absorbed by the medium itself.The transition or jumping of electrons from E3 state to E2 state is called as non-radiative transition (or) invisible transition. The electrons in this state E2 remains for longer period compare to state E1, in the order of 3 x 10-3milli seconds.This electronic state is called as Metastable state.
Views: 78520 7activestudio
Hemodialysis
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Kidney is most essential organ to remove nitrogenous waste materials from the body. Kidney was damaged by several human activities leads to kidney failure. Once it is damaged it cannot perform basic functions. To overcome this problem one of the best method we follows called hemodialysis. Hemodialysis is a process of removing of nitrogenous waste materials and excess fluids from the blood (collecting from arteries) through tubes containing semi permeable linings in the dialyzer and sending purified blood to the patient's body through veins. It covers the process of hemodialysis in step wise manner. Hemodialysis only performs some basic functions not all those which are performed by natural kidney like reabsorption etc..
Views: 162301 7activestudio
CRYSTAL LATTICE AND UNIT CELL
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Crystal Lattice and Unit Cell: A three dimensional cubic latticeThe three dimensional arrangement of particles as points in space is called space lattice or crystal lattice. There are 14 different three dimensional lattices are possible which are called Bravais lattice. Bravais was a French mathematician.Unit cell parameters a, b, c are three edges, as α, β and γ are the angles between them.Unit cell is the simple part of crystal lattice which repeats itself to generate a crystal. In unit cell the three edges are represented by a, b, and c and the angles between these edges as α, β and γ.Unit cell: 1 Primitive 2 Centered : 1 Body centered 2 Face centered 3End centered. Body Centered. Face Centered. End Centered. Types of unit cells: It is of two types: a Primitive and b Centered.When the constituent particles are present only at the corners of the unit cell then it is called primitive unit cell.When the constituent particles are present at other positions along with corners then it is called centered unit cell. It is again of three types: i Body centered, ii Face centered and iii End centered.If the constituent particle is present at the body centered along with corners called Body Centered Unit Cell.If the constituent particles are present at the 6 face centers along with corners called Face Centered Unit cell.If the constituent particles are present at the centers of any two opposite faces along with corners called End Centered Unit Cell.Seven crystal systems: Crystal Systems: - there are 230 crystal forms possible. These are classified into 32 classes on the basis of symmetry which are further divided into seven crystal systems depending on the crystallographic parameters a, b, c and α, β, γ.
Views: 195417 7activestudio
TYPES OF JAUNDICE IN THE NEWBORN
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
Views: 19699 7activestudio
Detection of Carbon And Hydrogen
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. DETECTION OF CARBON AND HYDROGEN:The analysis of an organic compound is the first step to find the elements present in it qualitatively.The detection of various elements present in an organic compound is called qualitative analysis.Carbon and Hydrogen are present in almost all organic compounds.Let us see the procedure of detecting carbon and hydrogen.Take the organic compound in a dry test tube and mix it with cupric oxide(cuo), three times its weight.Heat the compound strongly.The evolved gases are passed through a delivery tube containing a bulb with an hydrous copper sulphate.Then it passed into lime water taken in a test tube.If carbon is present, it forms Co2gas. The Co2gas turns lime water milky.The reactions involved in this process are:If hydrogen is present in the compound it forms H2O vapour.Watervapour when passed over white anhydrous CuSo4, it turns blue by forming CuSo4.5H2o.The reactions involved in this process are : The detection of various elements present in an organic compound is called qualitative analysis.For detection of carbon and hydrogen, take the organic compound in a dry test tube and mix it with cupric oxide. Heat it gets oxidized into carbon-dioxide (Co2).If Hydrogen is present in the organic compound, it is released as water vapour .Carbon dioxide gas turns lime water milky.Watervapour turns white anhydrous copper sulphate into blue.The reactions involved in this process are :Expected questions from this module:What is qualitative analysis and explain the procedure of detecting carbon and hydrogen in an organic compound.Write the equations involved in detecting carbon and hydrogen in an organic compound.Explain the principle involved indetecting carbon and hydrogen in an organic compound.
Views: 24891 7activestudio
CRITICAL ANGLE AND TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
 
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Download SCIENCETUTS App to Access 120+ hours of Free content. For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which total internal reflection occurs. The angle of incidence is measured with respect to the normal at the refractive boundary (see diagram illustrating Snell's law). Consider a light ray passing from glass into air.
Views: 29269 7activestudio
Excretion in human
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Excretion is a process of removing waste materials such as nitrogenous waste through excretory system is known as Excretion. Excretory system includes a pair of Kidneys; a pair of ureters, Urinary bladder and urethra to complete excretion process successfully. Excretion is carried out by one special organ in human body called Kidney. Kidney has specialized structure called nephrons for excretion. Kidney performs excretion process in three steps such as Filtration, Re absorption and secretion. Urinary bladder and urethra are mainly involved in Urination that is excretion of urine from the kidney.
Views: 524824 7activestudio
simple cubic cell
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Number of atoms in unit cell:Primitive cubic unit cell. In this type of unit cell the constituent particles occupy the 8 corners. So the total no. of atoms in one unit cell.Body centered unit cellIn this type of unit cell the constituent particles occupy the 8 corners and body center. So, the total no. of atoms in one unit cellFace centered unit cellIn this type of unit cell, the constituent particles occupy the 8 corners and 6 faces.One dimensional packingLet us consider the constituent particles as hard sphere which help us in explaining the packing.There is only one way of arraying the sphere and it is in contact with 2 other spheres. So its co-ordination.Two dimensional packing a Square close packingTwo dimensional packing can be arranged in two different ways.AArrange the second layer of spheres in contact with first layer such that each sphere is in contact with four other spheres. (Sphere is aligned horizontally as well as vertically). So the co-ordination number is 4. If the first row is of 'A' type and second row is exactly the same as first then this type of arrangement is called 'AAA' type of arrangement or square packing.Hexagonal close packing:Arrange the second layer of spheres in contact with first layer such that each sphere is in contact with 6 other spheres (second row spheres fit in the depression of first row spheres). So the co-ordination number is 6. If the first row is of 'A' type and second row is of 'B' type then this type of packing is called 'ABAB' type of packing or Hexagonal packing. The empty space is less when compared to square packing.Three dimensional close packingSimple cubic latticeEx: - PoloniumThese are generated by placing two dimensional layers on one above the other.This type of packing is obtained by placing layers exactly on the top of first layer. Such that each sphere is in contact with 6 spheres four from the same layer one from the top layer and one from the bottom layer. This type of arrangement is called 'AAA' type of arrangement. The total space occupied by the spheres is 52% and the remaining space is void.The co-ordination number is Ex: - Polonium.
Views: 84328 7activestudio
IMMUNE RESPONSE
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
Views: 44784 7activestudio
Position of gynoecium on the thalamus
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. POSTION OF GYNOECIUM ON THE THALAMUS: Based on the position gynoecium on the thalamus in relation to other floral parts, flowers are divided into three types, as follows: 1. Hypogynous Flowers, 2. Perigynous Flowers and 3. Epigynous Flowers. HYPOGYNOUS FLOWERS: Thalamus is convex or conical.The gynoecium is present at the tip of the thalamus. The remaining floral parts like calyx, corolla, androecium are arranged at the base of the gynoecium.In this flower, ovary is completely present outside the thalamus. So it is called 'SUPERIOR OVARY'. Examples:Hibiscus, Datura. PERIGYNOUS FLOWERS: Thalamus is concave or saucer shaped.The gynoecium is located centrally in the thalamus. The remaining floral parts like calyx, corolla, androecium are arranged along the margins.In this flower, ovary wall is adnated to thalamus only at the base. In this flower, ovary is present partly inside and partly outside the thalamus. So the ovary is called HALF-INFERIOR or HALF SUPERIOR OVARY. Example:Tephrosia. EPIGYNOUS FLOWERS: The thalamus is deep cup like in appearance. The ovary of the gynoecium is completely embedded in the thalamus. The wall of the ovary is completely fused with thalamus.The remaining floral parts like calyx, corolla and androecium are arranged along the margins of the thalamus. The ovary is completely inside the thalamus. So the ovary is called 'INFERIOR OVARY'. Example:Tridax.
Views: 14745 7activestudio
Nutrition in Human Beings
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. NUTRITION IN HUMAN BEINGS:The process of nutrition in human beings is called as digestion.Human beings consist of specialized organs for the process of digestion called as digestive system.Digestive system includes. Alimentary canal: The alimentary canal starts from mouth to anus.Digestive enzymes: The gastric glands that are present in the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid and protein digestive enzymes like pepsin and mucus.The alimentary canal in the digestive system consists of various parts. Let us discuss them in detail. MOUTH:Mouth is the first part of the alimentary canal. In mouth the food is crushed to generate small particles with small texture with the help of teeth and muscular tongue which helps to move on either sides of the mouth. This process is called as chewing.The crushed food forms into a soft bolus with help of saliva that is secreted by salivary glands.The food we take through the mouth is in complex nature but for absorption into alimentary canal food should be converted into smaller molecules. This can be done with help of biocatalysts such as salivary amylase which is present in saliva.The saliva breaks down complex molecules into simple molecule sugar.Now the food should enter into digestive tube in a regulated manner and processed properly.The digestive canal has a lining of muscles which helps to push food forward. These movements are called as peristaltic movements which occur along the gut. i.e., from stomach to anus.
Views: 175609 7activestudio
Transportation In Human Beings
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Transportation in human beings:Hello students, in our previous section we have learnt about nutrition and respiration, now let us discuss about transport in human beings and transport in plants. As we learnt earlier Blood transports food and oxygen salt and takes away waste materials from our body.Blood is a fluid connective tissue and fluid medium in blood is called as plasma in which cells are suspended. The Plasma in the blood helps in transportation of food, oxygen, Carbondioxide and nitrogenous wastes in dissolved form.The oxygen in the blood is carried by red blood cells.To perform all the functions of circulation a pumping organ called heart is present in human body, which consists of network of tubes to reach all the tissue of the system.Let us discuss about heart in detail.Heart is a muscular organ which is conical in shape which sizes as of fist and located on the left side of the chest.Let us discuss about structure of heart in detailSTRUCTURE OF HEART:The heart is divided into four (4) chambers.1.Right upper chamber.2.Right lower chamber. 3.Left upper chamber.4.Left lower chamber. Upper chambers of the heart are called as auricles or atrium.Lower chambers of the heart are called as ventricles.Ventricles have thicker muscles than auricles.To prevent backward flow of blood, valves are present between auricles and ventricles.The blood in the body is differentiated into two types of rich contents.Oxygen rich content blood is called as oxygenated blood.Carbondioxide rich content blood is called as deoxygenated blood. To prevent both types of blood mixing in the heart, heart is divided into. chambers.Oxygenated blood which is oxygen rich content reaches from lungs to heart and distributed to rest of the parts of the body.Deoxygenated blood which is carbon rich content collected from all parts of the body to heart for purification.This blood is sent to lungs for purification or oxygenation.Let us discuss this in step by step process.
Views: 105756 7activestudio
CANCER (CHEMOTHERAPY)
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
Views: 788098 7activestudio
Nematoda General Characters
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. NEMATODA - GENERAL CHARACTERS AND CLASSIFICATION:Nematodes are commonly referred to as roundworms, threadworms or pinworms.Nematodes is one of the largest groups of metazoan.Nematodes are pseudo-coelomates. Bilaterally symmetrical cylindrical body with triploblastic nature.GENERAL CHARACTERS OF NEMATODA:Some are parasites and others are free living in soil or water.Example: Rhabditis Body is long cylindrical without segmentation.Nematodes are characterized by a species specific number of cells or nuclei. Body of nematodes is slender cylindrical un-segmented with resistant cuticle.Body wall contains longitudinal muscles. Circular muscles are absent.Body cavity is pseudo-coelom.Epidermis is syncytial. Locomotory cilia are absent. Some have ciliated gastrodermalcells.Alimentary canal is simple straight tube. Mouth at anterior end and anus at the posteriorend.Digestion is both extra-cellular and intracellular. Intestine is non muscular.Blood vascular system is absent. Pseudo-coelomicfluid helps in the transport of nutrients.Excretory system contains 'H' shaped canals or excretory gland. Respiration is by anaerobic method.Nervous system consists of a circum-enteric nerve ring with ganglia.Sense organs are amphids (mechanical and chemoreceptors present at the anterior region of the body) and phasmidsglandulo sensory structures in the posterior region of the body.Sexes are separate. Sexual dimorphism is present. Males are smaller with curved posterior end. They possess a cloaca with one or two copulatory spicules. Females are longer with straight posterior end. Genital pore is separate from anus.Fertilization is internal.Development involves four moults of the cuticle.Nematodes exhibiteutely. It is a phenomenon in which cell division cease near the end of embryonic development, so that number of cells of the adult is constant.Developmentincludes rabdtiformlarva.CLASSIFICATION OF NEMATODA:Nematoda is divided into two classes.Class 1: Aphasmidia.Class 2: Phasmidia.Class 1: APHASMIDIA. These are mostly free living.Amphids are of various shape and highly modified.Phasmids are absent.Excretory glands are present and excretory canals are absent.Examples: Greeffiella Free living.Trichinella Trichina worm parasite.Class 2: PHASMIDIA.Some are freeliving and others are parasitic.Amphids are porelike.Phasmids are present.Excretory glands orexcretory canals or both are present.Examples: Ascaris common round warm,Enterobius pinworm, Wuchereria Filarial worm,Ancylostoma hook worm.See the table showing common names and scientific names of important phasmids and aphasmids.
Views: 90519 7activestudio
DEGREES OF FREEDOM
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. DEGREES OF FREEDOM:- The number of directions in which a particle can move freely is defined as its degree of freedom. OR The number of independent coordinates required to specify completely the position and orientation of a particle in space, is defined as its degree of freedom Degrees of freedom are of three types: they are, Degrees of freedom of translational motion f_t Degrees of freedom of rotational motion f_r and Degrees of freedom of vibrational motion f_v Degrees of freedom of translational motion f_t:- These are due to translational motion of molecules. Maximum number of translational degrees of freedom is 3 irrespective of that the molecule may be monatomic or polyatomic, linear or Non linear. These are present at ordinary temperature. Degrees of freedom of rotational motion f_r: These are due to rotational motion of a molecule about an axis passing through the centre of mass of the molecule. Their number depends up on the structure of molecule. These are also present at ordinary temperatures. Degrees of freedom of vibrational motion f_v: These are due to the vibrational motion of molecule about its equilibrium position. Their number depends up on the structure of the molecules. These are produced only at high temperatures. Degrees of freedom for:- Monoatomic gas:- A mono atomic gas molecule can move linearly in any direction along three co-ordinate axes. Hence its degrees of freedom is (f_t) = 3 Examples: molecules of noble gases like He (helium), Ne (neon), Ar (Argon) etc Diatomic gas:- The center of mass of two atoms is free to move along three Co-ordinate axes. Hence its translational degrees of freedom is f_t = 3 The molecules if these gases can rotate about a perpendicular axis passing through their center of mass in two directions. Hence its degree of freedom of rotating motion is f_r=2 , Therefore, total degrees of freedom f = f_t+ f_r = 3 + 2= 5 For a tri atomic or polyatomic gas non linear :- Degrees of freedom of translational motion, f_t = 3 and degrees of freedom of rotational motion, f_r = 3, Therefore, total degree of freedom, f =f_t+ f_r = 3 + 3 = 6 Note: In general, degrees of freedom can be determined as F = 3N -- B
Views: 116677 7activestudio
PRINCIPLES AND WORKING OF A LASER _PART 2
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. PRINCIPLES AND WORKING OF A LASER:In our earlier session we have learnt different characteristic properties of Lasers.Now let us learn about the principles of working of laser.Generally laser works in the form of process which consists of 4 important processes.They are: 1.Absorption2.Spontaneous emission3.Pumping and population inversion and4.Stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.Now let us discuss about the processes that takes place in atoms. ABSORPTION:It is well known that, atom consists of different energy states.Let us consider two energy states of an electron.Let us say ground state as Egand excited state as Ex.When electromagnetic energy falls on the atom, in the form of light photon of frequency 'v'.Whereas electromagnetic energy is equal to the difference of Eg- Ex = hv.When it energy falls on the electron, it absorbs the energy and jumps from ground state Eg to excited state Ex.SPONTANEOUS EMISSION:As we already said, electrons jump from ground state to excited state.But the excited electrons that jumped to higher energy state, doesn't remain for longer period in that state and come back to their original ground state by losing its energy in the form of photons.The photons don't have any correlation in phase and thus considered as incoherent light.Thus the release of energy by the electrons on their own is said to be as spontaneous emission.Transition of electrons from one state to another state occurs random in time.By definition,Spontaneous emission is defined as the process in which the electrons in the excited atoms are released on their own from their higher energy state to the ground state.PUMPING AND POULATION INVERSION:As we already said, the transitioned electrons don't stay for longer time in the excited state.There are electrons of some substances or systems, where they remain in the excited state for longer period.Such systems are called ACTIVE SYSTEMS or ACTIVE MEDIA.These are generally compounds or mixtures of different elements.When electrons turn into active systems, their electronic energy levels are also modified and thus it acquires some special properties.Now let us discuss them in detail.Now let us consider atom has three electronic states E1, E2, E3 in active medium.Generally electrons exist in lower state called as Ground state E1.Let us number of electrons in ground state as N1.As we already learnt., Due to the process of absorption when electromagnetic energy equal to the difference of E3 -- E1 are incident on atom, electrons jump from state 1 to the excited state 3.Due to the process of spontaneous emission, the excited electron in the E3 state remains for less period, in order of 10-8sec.Usually most of the electrons loses its energy due to spontaneous emission and returns from E3 state to E1 state. The number of electrons in this state is said to be as N1.But some of the electrons may lose very less energy E3 -E2and jump to state E2.The less emitted energy by electrons is called as Thermal energy.
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DYES, TYPES OF DYES AND DYES USES
 
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Download SCIENCETUTS App to Access 120+ hours of Free content. For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. An acid dye is a dye which is a salt of a sulfuric, carboxylic or phenolic organic acid. The salts are often sodium or ammonium salts. Acid dyes are typically soluble in water and possesses affinity for amphoteric fibers while lacking direct dyes' affinity for cellulose fibers. These dyes are made from synthetic resources such as petroleum by-products and earth minerals. The first human-made organic aniline dye, mauveine, was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin in 1856, the result of a failed attempt at the total synthesis of quinine. Soda Ash Dye Fixer. Soda ash is a mild alkali that promotes the chemical reaction between Procion MX fiber reactive dye and cellulose fiber. Soda ash is also known as sodium carbonate, washing soda, or sal soda.
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AESTIVATION
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. AESTIVATION: The mode of arrangement of perianth lobes in bud condition is called 'ASETIVATION'. It is of different types: 1. Valvate aestivation. 2. Twisted, 3. Ascendingly Imbricate, 4. Descendingly Imbricate (Vexillary) and 5. Quincuncial aestivation. Let us study them one by one. VALVATE AESTIVATION: Perianth lobes are arranged closely with small gaps between them. Example:Calyx of Hibiscus. TWISTED AESTIVATION: Perianth lobes overlap one another, in which one margin of one perianth lobe is covered by the margin of another perianth lobe. All perianth lobes has one margin inside and one margin outside. Examples:Corolla of Datura, Hibiscus. ASCENDINGLY IMBRICATE AESTIVATION: Each perianth lobe overlaps the perianth lobes present posterior to it. The overlapping of perianth lobes appear in postero-anterior direction In this one perinath lobe is completly present outside, and one perianth lobe is present completely inside. The remaining three has one margin inside and one margin outside. It is called 1+1+ 3 arrangement. Example:Corolla of Caesalpiniaceae. DESCENDINGLY IMBRICATE AESTIVATION: Each perianth lobe covers the perianth lobe present anterior to it.The overlapping of perianth lobes appear in postero anterior direction. Example:Corolla of Fabaceae--called Papilionaceous corolla. QUINCUNCIAL AESTIVATION: It is also a twisted type of aestivation. It shows five perianth lobes, in which two are present completely outside, two are present completely inside, fifthperianth member has one margin inside and one margin outside. The perianth lobes appear in 2+2+1 manner. Example:Calyx of Ipomea, Catharanthus.
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DIALYSIS
 
04:27
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Oxidation - Reduction
 
01:54
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Oxidation and Reduction: Redox reaction: Aim: Formation of copper oxide from copper Requirement:China dish, copper powder, burner, tripod stand, wire gauze Activity: Heat a china dish containing some amount of copper powder and observe what will happen?We can observe the surface of copper powder becoming coated with black copperIII oxide. Because oxygen is added from air to copper and copper oxide is formed. 2Cu + O2→ 2CuO. If hydrogen gas is passed over this heated material CuO,The black coating on the surface turns brown due to reverse reaction and copper is obtained. CuO + H2 → Cu + H2O. If substance gains oxygen during a reaction is called oxidised. If substance loser oxygen during a reaction is called reduced.In this reaction copper II oxide is losing oxygen and is being reduced. The hydrogen is gaining oxygen and is being oxidised one reactant gets oxidised while the other gets reduced during reaction is called redox reactions.
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DEFECTS OF VISION AND THEIR CORRECTION
 
04:24
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. DEFECTS OF VISION AND THEIR CORRECTION: The eye may gradually lose its power of accommodation. In such conditions, the person cannot see the objects distinctly and comfortably. The vision becomes blurred due to the refractive defects of the eye. There are mainly three common refractive defects of vision. These are 1.Myopia or near-sightedness, 2.Hypermetropia or farsightedness, and 3. Presbyopia. These defects can be corrected by the use of suitable spherical lenses. We discuss below these defects and their correction. Myopia: The light from a distant object arriving at the eye lens may get converged at a point in front of the retina in the vitreous body. This type of defect is called near sightedness or myopia. Let us observe these cases, and then you can understand the concept 'myopia'. In the case of normal eye, the light rays from the object fall on the eye and converge on the retina.In the case of myopic eye, the light rays from the object fall on the eye and focuses the light at a point in front of the retina in the vitreous body. The correction for myopia: To compensate this, we interpose a concave lens between the eye and the object, with the diverging effect desired to get the image focused on the retina. Hypermetropia: If the eye-lens focuses the incoming light at a point behind the retina, this defect is called far sightedness or hypermetropia. Let us observe these cases, and then you can understand the concept 'hypermetropia'.In the case of normal eye, the light rays from the object fall on the eye and converge on the retina.In the case of hypermetropic eye, the light rays from the object fall on the eye and focuses the incoming light at a point behind the retina. The correction for hypermetropic eye: A convergent lens is needed to compensate for the defect in vision. Presbyopia:What is presbyopia?Presbyopia is a common type of vision disorder that occurs as you age. It is often referred to as the aging eye condition. Presbyopia results in the inability to focus up close, a problem associated with refraction in the eye.How does presbyopia occur? Presbyopia happens naturally in people as they age. The eye is not able to focus light directly on to the retina due to the hardening of the natural lens. Aging also affects muscle fibers around the lens making it harder for the eye to focus on up close objects. The ineffective lens causes light to focus behind the retina, causing poor vision for objects that are up close. When you are younger, the lens of the eye is soft and flexible, allowing the tiny muscles inside the eye to easily reshape the lens to focus on close and distant objects. TAG's: astigmatism -1.00, astigmatism -2, cataracts, macular degeneration, myopia -1.5, vision correction, lasik vision correction, vision correction options, overnight vision correction,how much does lasik cost,how much does lasik cost, lasik eye surgery,myopia treatment, glaucoma, cataract surgery, astigmatism, presbyopia,lasik md, laser surgery, laser surgery for eyes, lazy eye surgery, corrective eye surgery, glaucoma symptoms, blurred vision.
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LUMINOUS INTENSITY
 
01:35
Download SCIENCETUTS App to Access 120+ hours of Free content. For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. In photometry, luminous intensity is a measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle, based on the luminosity function, a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye. The SI unit of luminous intensity is the candela (cd), an SI base unit.
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CLOSE PACKED STRUCTURES
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Two dimensional packing can be arranged in two different ways. (a) Arrange the second layer of spheres in contact with first layer such that each sphere is in contact with four other spheres. (Sphere is aligned horizontally as well as vertically). So the co-ordination number is 4. If the first row is of ‘A’ type and second row is exactly the same as first then this type of arrangement is called ‘AAA’ type of arrangement or square packing. (b) Arrange the second layer of spheres in contact with first layer such that each sphere is in contact with 6 other spheres (second row spheres fit in the depression of first row spheres). So the co-ordination number is 6. If the first row is of ‘A’ type and second row is of ‘B’ type then this type of packing is called ‘ABAB’ type of packing or Hexagonal packing. The empty space is less when compared to square packing.
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PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES _ PART 02
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Sky waves:In the frequency range from a few MHz up to 30 to 40 MHz, long distance communication can be achieved by ionospheric reflection of radio waves back towards the earth. This mode of propagation is called sky wave propagation and is used by short wave broadcast services. The ionosphere is so called because of the presence of a large number of ions or charged particles. It extends from a height of ~65 Km to about 400 Km above the earth’s surface. Ionisation occurs due to the absorption of the ultraviolet and other high-energy radiation coming from the sun by air molecules. The ionosphere is further subdivided into several layers, the details of which are given in Table. The degree of ionisation varies with the height. The density of atmosphere decreases with height. At great heights the solar radiation is intense but there are few molecules to be ionised. Close to the earth, even though the molecular concentration is very high, the radiation intensity is low so that the ionisation is again low. However, at some intermediate heights, there occurs a peak of ionisation density. The ionospheric layer acts as a reflector for a certain range of frequencies 3 to 30 MHz.Electromagnetic waves of frequencies higher than 30 MHz penetrate the ionosphere and escape. These phenomena are shown in the Figure. The phenomenon of bending of EM waves so that they are diverted towards the earth is similar to total internal reflection in optics. Space wave: Another mode of radio wave propagation is by space waves. A space wave travels in a straight line from transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. Space waves are used for line-of-sight LOS communication as well as satellite communication. At frequencies above 40 MHz, communication is essentially limited to line-of-sight paths. At these frequencies, the antennas are relatively smaller and can be placed at heights of many wavelengths above the ground. Because of line-of-sight nature of propagation, direct waves get blocked at some point by the curvature of the earth as illustrated in Figure. If the signal is to be received beyond the horizon then the receiving antenna must be high enough to intercept the line-of-sight waves.If the transmitting antenna is at a height hT, then you can show that the distance to the to the horizon dT is give where R is the radius of the earth approximately 6400 km.
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BRYOPHYTES
 
03:35
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. BRYOPHYTES: Bryophytes include the various mosses and liverworts that are found growing in moist shaded areas in the hills. Bryophytes are small group of primitive plants which are commonly called “amphibians” of the plant kingdom. The word bryophyte (bryon=moss, phyton=plant) was coined by Brown the study of bryophytes is called Bryology. They are characterized by following features. 1. Bryophytes chiefly occur in damp, shady and humid localities. 2. The plant body is a gametophyte (because it produces gametes). It is thallus like in primitive form (Riccia). In higher bryophytes the plant body is differentiated into rhizoids, stem and leaves. The stem is prostrate or erect, and attached to the substratum by unicellular or multicellular rhizoids. They are organs of absorption and fixation. 3. Nutritionally, the plant body is independent, and is the conspicuous phase of the life cycle.
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THE HUMAN EAR
 
03:29
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. The Human Ear: (Auditory mechanism of hearing): The Human Ear is mainly divided into three portions. One is outer Ear which collects sound waves from surroundings, Second one is Middle Ear, which transmits amplified sound waves to the inner ear, and Third one is Inner Ear, which converts amplified sound waves into electrical signals. These electrical signals are passed through the auditory nerve to the brain and brain interprets them as sound. The Human Ear explains the auditory mechanism of hearing, working of three portions (Outer ear, Middle ear, Inner ear) in human ear which converts sound waves into electrical signals and auditory nerve transmits electrical signals to brain and brain interprets them as sound.
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The Human Eye
 
06:20
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. The human eye: is the most valuable and sensitive sense organ and it is a natural optical instrument. The important parts of the eye: Cornea, Iris, Pupil, Eye Lens, Retina. Power of Accommodation: The ability of the eye to focus objects lying at different distances is called the power of accommodation of the eye. Least Distance of Distinct Vision Near point: Near point or least distance of distinct vision is the point nearest to the eye at which an object is visible distinctly The far point of the eye: Far point of the eye is the maximum distance up to which the normal eye can see things clearly. It is infinity for a normal eye. The twinkling of a star is due to atmospheric refraction of starlight. Scattering of light: When a beam of light falls on an atom, it causes the electron in the atom to vibrate. The vibrating electrons, in turn, re-emit light in all directions. This process is called scattering.
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Reproductive System of Frog
 
01:56
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Reproductive system of frog: Sexes are separate in frogs, exhibits sexual dimorphism and have well organized male and female reproductive systems.Male reproductive system: Male reproductive system of frog consists of testis, vasa efferentia, urenogenital duct and cloaca.Testis: A pair of yellowish ovoid testis found adhered to the upper part of kidneys by a double fold of peritoneum called mesoorchium.Vasa efferentia: These are 10 to 12 in number that arise from testes, enters the kidney on their side and opens into Bidder's canal. Finally it communicates with the urinogenitalduct.Urinogenital duct comes out of the kidneys and open into the cloaca.Cloaca: The cloaca is a small, median chamber that is used to pass faecal matter, urine and sperms to the exterior.Female reproductive system: The female reproductive system consists of ovaries and oviduct.Ovaries: A pair of ovaries situated near kidneys and there is no functional connection with kidneys.Oviduct: A pair of oviduct arising from the ovaries opens into the cloaca separately.A mature female can lay 2500 to 3000 ova at a time. Fertilization is external and takes place in water.Development involves a larval stage called tadpole.Tadpole undergoes metamorphosis to form the adult.
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YOUNG’S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT PART 01
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. YOUNG’S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT:We have earlier discussed the phenomenon of interference of waves, therefore, it is natural to expect that light also exhibits the phenomenon of interference. But interference of light is not so evident as the interference of sound waves. This is due to the very small wavelength of light waves as compared to the wavelength of sound waves.In 1801, Thomas young demonstrated successfully the interference of light by performing a double slit experiment.Young allowed sunlight to pass through a hole and then at some distance through two pin holes S1 and S2. When light was received on a screen, an uneven distribution of light intensity was observed on the screen. A number of alternate dark and bright spots were seen on the screen. The phenomenon of interference can be understood on the basis of Huygens principle. The secondary wavelets coming from S1 and S2 have equal amplitude, velocity and wavelength. In figure, the continuous circular arcs represent the regions of wave crest. The dotted circular arcs represent regions of wave trough. At points marked by small circles, the trough of one wave is superposed over the trough of another wave or the crest of one wave falls over the crest of another wave. According to the principle of super position, the amplitude and hence the intensity of the resultant wave is maximum at these points. Similarly, the intensity is minimum at points marked by a “cross”. Thus, the resultant intensity is maximum along the lines connecting the “crosses”. On the screen, we get a number of alternate dark and bright regions of equal width. This is called interference pattern.Analytical treatment of interference.
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HEART ATTACK (ACS & MI)
 
04:34
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STRUCTURE OF DNA
 
03:01
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Structure of DNA: The DNA molecule is a polymer consisting of several thousand pairs of nucleotide monomers.Each nucleotide consists of three components. They are 1. Pentose sugar deoxyribose 2. Phosphate group 3. Nitrogenous base Nucleoside = deoxyribose + nitrogenous base Nucleotide = deoxyribose + nitrogenous base + phosphate Pentose sugar:deoxyribose sugar is a pentose sugar with five carbon atoms. Phosphate: the phosphate is attached to the adjacent pentose sugar alternately at their 5th and 3rd carbon atoms by phospho -- diester bonds. The phosphate and pentose sugar constitute the back bone of nucleic acids. Nitrogen bases: there are two types of nitrogen bases 1.Purines adenine and guanine and 2.Pyramidines cytosine and thymine Nitrogenous base is linked to the pentose sugar through N- glycosidic linkage to form a nucleoside. When a phosphate is linked to 51 OH of a nucleoside through phosphoester linkage a corresponding nucleotide is formed. Two nucleotides are linked through 31 -- 51 phosphodiester linkage to form dinucleotide. More nucleotides are joined to form a polynucleotide chain. A polymer has at one end a free phosphate moiety at 51 end of ribose sugar, at the other end the ribose sugar has 31 OH group. The back bone in a polynucleotide chain formed due to sugar and phosphates. The nitrogenous bases linked to sugar moiety form the back bone.
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Sigma and Pi bonds
 
02:04
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond.[1] They are formed by head-on overlapping between atomic orbitals. Sigma bonding is most clearly defined for diatomic moleculesusing the language and tools of symmetry groups. In this formal approach, a σ-bond is symmetrical with respect to rotation about the bond axis. By this definition, common forms of sigma bonds are s+s, pz+pz, s+pz and dz2+dz2 (where z is defined as the axis of the bond).[2] Quantum theory also indicates that molecular orbitals (MO) of identical symmetry actually mix. As a practical consequence of this mixing of diatomic molecules, thewavefunctions s+s and pz+pz molecular orbitals become blended. The extent of this mixing (or blending) depends on the relative energies of the like-symmetry MO's In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of one involved atomic orbital overlap two lobes of the other involved atomic orbital. Each of these atomic orbitals is zero at a shared nodal plane, passing through the two bonded nuclei. The same plane is also a nodal plane for the molecular orbital of the pi bond.
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PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES PART 01
 
03:18
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES:In communication using radio waves, an antenna at the transmitter radiates the Electromagnetic waves EM waves, which travel through the space and reach the receiving antenna at the other end. As the EM wave travels away from the transmitter, the strength of the wave keeps on decreasing. Several factors influence the propagation of EM waves and the path they follow. At this point, it is also important to understand the composition of the earth’s atmosphere as it plays a vital role in the propagation of EM waves. A brief discussion on some useful layers of the atmosphere is given in Table. Ground wave: To radiate signals with high efficiency, the antennas should have a size comparable to the wavelength of the signal at least /4. At longer wavelengths i.e., at lower frequencies, the antennas have large physical size and they are located on or very near to the ground. In standard AM broadcast, ground based vertical towers are generally used as transmitting antennas. For such antennas, ground has a strong influence on the propagation of the signal. The mode of propagation is called surface wave propagation and the wave glides over the surface of the earth. A wave induces current in the ground over which it passes and it is attenuated as a result of absorption of energy by the earth. The attenuation of surface waves increases very rapidly with increase in frequency. The maximum range of coverage depends on the transmitted power and frequency less than a few MHz. Sky waves:In the frequency range from a few MHz up to 30 to 40 MHz, long distance communication can be achieved by ionospheric reflection of radio waves back towards the earth. This mode of propagation is called sky wave propagation and is used by short wave broadcast services. The ionosphere is so called because of the presence of a large number of ions or charged particles. It extends from a height of ~65 Km to about 400 Km above the earth’s surface. Ionisation occurs due to the absorption of the ultraviolet and other high-energy radiation coming from the sun by air molecules. The ionosphere is further subdivided into several layers, the details of which are given in Table. The degree of ionisation varies with the height. The density of atmosphere decreases with height. At great heights the solar radiation is intense but there are few molecules to be ionised. Close to the earth, even though the molecular concentration is very high, the radiation intensity is low so that the ionisation is again low. However, at some intermediate heights, there occurs a peak of ionisation density. The ionospheric layer acts as a reflector for a certain range of frequencies 3 to 30 MHz.Electromagnetic waves of frequencies higher than 30 MHz penetrate the ionosphere and escape. These phenomena are shown in the Figure. The phenomenon of bending of EM waves so that they are diverted towards the earth is similar to total internal reflection in optics.
Views: 170350 7activestudio
ADRENAL GLAND
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. HUMAN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM :ADRENAL GLAND :They are a pair of yellowish, flat, pyramid like glands which lie over the upper end of the kidneys. They look like a cap on the kidney. Each gland has an outer yellow adrenal cortex and inner reddish brown adrenal medulla.Adrenal Medulla secretes 2 hormones called adrenaline or epinephrine and non adrenaline or non epinephrine. These are commonly called catecholamines.In conditions of physical and mental stress -- such as fall in blood sugar levels or when a person is injured or exposed to cold conditions or suffering with pain. It is also secreted during anger, fear or grief. It helps the body to face these conditions. It is therefore called Emergency hormone or Fight or Fight hormone or 3F-hormone (Fight, fright and flight). These hormones increase alertness, pupilary dilation, raising of hairs, sweating etc. the hormone increases blood supply to heart and skeletal muscles. It constricts arterioles and blood supply to skin and gastrointestinal tract. The bronchioles dilate. There is increased rate of breathing, oxygenation and heart beat to meet any emergency. Cathecholamines stimulate the breakdown of glycogen resulting in increased concentration of glucose in blood. They also stimulate the breakdown of lipids and proteins.Adrenal cortex : can be divided into 3 layers called zona reticularis inner layer. Zona fasiculata middle layer. Zona glomerulosa outer layer.Adrenal cortex secretes many hormones called corticoids. Gluco corticoids : involved in carbohydrate metabolism. E.g. cortisol.Mineralo corticoids : corticoids which regulate the balance of water and electrolytes in our body. Eg: Aldosterone.Gluco corticoids stimulate -- gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and proteolysis and inhibit -- cellular uptake and utilization of amino acids. Cortisol is also involved in maintaining the cardiovascular system and kidney functions. It also produces anti inflammatory reactions and suppresses the immune response. Cortisol stimulates RBC production. Aldosterone acts at renal tubules and stimulates reabsorption of Na+ and water and excretion of K+ and〖Po〗_4^-. Thus aldosterone helps in the maintenance of electrolytes, body fluid volume, osmotic pressure and B.P. small amounts of androgenic steroids are also secreted by adrenal cortex which play a role in the growth of axial hair, public hair and facial hair during puberty.
Views: 120771 7activestudio
EMBRYO, FRUIT AND SEED
 
01:55
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
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OVULATION & THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
 
03:54
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
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Doppler Effect In Light Waves
 
02:12
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. DOPPLER EFFECT IN LIGHT WAVES: In our earlier session we have learnt about Doppler effect in sound.Now let us learn about Doppler effect in light.The physicist had found Doppler effect in sound waves, later he applied to light waves also.In case of light, due to Doppler effect, when the source of light moving to observer, the frequency of emitted light changes.When the frequency of sound wave changes, the intensity of sound changes.When the frequency of light wave changes, the color of the light changes.If we see at visible spectrum, we will find red light which has longer wavelength and blue light which has shorter wavelength.So, if any shift towards longer wavelength it is said to be as "red-shifts" and any shift towards shorter wavelengths is said to be as "blue shifts".The change in frequency is same as change in wavelength.Longer wavelength has lower frequency and shorter wavelength has higher frequency.As per Doppler effect, when source moves towards us, it has high frequency with lower wavelength and then the shift is "Blue-shift".When source is away from us, it has lower frequency with. higher wavelength and then the shift is "Red-shift".The Doppler effect in light can be seen with the help of device called as "spectroscope."
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CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER RADIATION
 
03:47
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. In our earlier session we have learnt about lasers, and also we learnt that properties of laser light are different from properties of light of ordinary sources. Now in present session let us discuss about the characteristic properties of laser light. Laser light is differentiated from ordinary light by four characteristics. 1. Coherence 2. Directionality 3. Monochromacity 4. High intensity Now let us learn about them in detail. COHERENCE: We all know that, how visible light is emitted from the source. In an atom when the electrons are in excited state, it jumps from one state to another state or higher state to ground state which is said to be as transition. In ordinary light sources, the electronic transition takes place randomly. But when the light waves received from ordinary light source, their wavelength has no definite phase in space and time. Hence these light waves are said to be as incoherent. In the case of laser light, the electronic transition takes place in an orderly way and their wavelength has consistent phase with time, which is called as ‘Temporal Coherence’. Thus lack of coherence is said to be as incoherent and makes a noise said to be as ‘optical noise’. Laser light with coherence makes sound said to be as ‘optical music’. Due to the characteristic of coherence, laser light produces large amount of power of the order of 10power 13 watts and can be focused in narrow space of linear dimension of 10power -6 meters.
Views: 28276 7activestudio
ANNELIDA GENERAL CHARECTER
 
04:34
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. ANNELIDA - GENERAL CHARACTERS AND CLASSIFICATION: The name Annelida was first used by Lamarck in 1809 for the higher segmented worms. The word annelida has been derived either from the Latin word "annullus" meaning little ring or French word "anneler" meaning to arrange in rings. Annelida are triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical, coelomate and segmented metazoan. It includes well known earthworms and leeches. GENERAL CHARACTERS OF ANNELIDA: Cephalization is more pronounced with a distinct head bearing tentacles, eyes etc. They exhibit homonomous metamerism. Body is divided into segments which are separated externally by intersegmental grooves and internally by intersegmental septa. Body is divided in to three regions - Prostomium, Trunk and Pygidium.
Views: 28301 7activestudio
EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTORS
 
05:05
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Extrinsic Semiconductors:In intrinsic or pure semiconductors, the carrier concentration of both electrons and holes at normal temperatures very low, hence to get appreciable current density through the semiconductor, a large electric field should be applied. This problem can overcome by adding suitable impurities into the intrinsic semiconductors.The extrinsic semiconductors are those in which impurities of large quantity are present. In general, theimpurities can be either III group elements or V group elements. Based on the impurities present in the extrinsic semiconductors, they are classifies into two categories.1. n-type semiconductors and2. p-type semiconductors n-typesemiconductors:In order for silicon crystal to conduct electricity, we need to introduce an impurity atom such as Arsenic, Antimony or phosphorus into the crystalline structure. These atoms have five outer electrons in their outermost co-valent bond to share with other atoms and are commonly called pentavalent impurities. Thisallows four of the five electrons tobond with its neighboring silicon atoms leaving one free electron to move about when electrical voltage is applied. As each impurity atom donates one electron, pentavalent atoms are generally known as donors. Antimoney (Sb) is frequently used as pentavalent additive as it has 51 electronsarranged in 5 shells around the nucleus. The resulting semiconductor material has an excess of current carrying electrons, each with a negative charge, and is therefore referred to as n-type material with theelectrons called majority carriers and the resultant holes minority carriers. The block diagram of n-type impurity doping and corresponding band diagram is shown in figure 1.p-type semiconductors:In contrast to n-type of semiconductor, if we introduce a trivalent (3 electron) impurity into the crystal structure, such as aluminum, Boron or indium , only three valence electrons are available in the outermost covalent bond meaning that the fourth bond cannot be formed. Therefore, a complete connection is not possible, giving the semiconductor material an abundance of positively charged carriers known as holes in the structure of the crystal. As there is a hole an adjoining free electron is attracted to it and will try move into the hole to fill it. However, the electron filling the hole leaves another hole behind, and is forth giving the appearance that the holes are moving as a positive charge through the crystal structure (conventional current flow). As each impurity atom generates a hole, trivalent impurities are generally known as acceptors as they are continually accepting extra electrons. Boron (B) is frequently used as trivalent additive as it has only 5 electrons arranged in 3 shells around the nucleus. Addition Boron causes conduction to consistsmainly of positive charge carriers results in a p-type material and the positive holes are called majority carriers while the free electrons are called minority carriers.
Views: 88218 7activestudio
Heights and Distances 10th Maths
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Heights and Distances:We shall now see how Trigonometry is used for finding the height and distances of various objects, without actually measuring them. Before going to problem, let us learn about to kinds of angles:The line of sight is the line drawn from the eye of an observer to the point in the object viewed by the observer.Angle of Elevation and Angle of depression:In the figure, the line AB drawn from the eye of the student top of the Minar is called the line of sight. The student is looking at the top of minar. The angle BAC, so formed by the line of sight of the horizontal, is called the angle of elevation of the top of the minar from eye of the Student.Now, consider the situation given in the beginning. The girl sitting on the balcony is looking down at a flowerpot placed on a stair of the temple. In this case, the line of sight is below the horizontal is called the angle of depression.Now, you may identify the lines of sight, and the angles so formed in the above figure are the angle of elevation or angles of depression?Problem 1:Finding the Height of Qutubminar:Let us refer to again. If you want to find the height BD of the minar without actually measuring it, what information do you need? You would need to know the following:The distance DE at which the student is standing from the foot of the minar. Let it be 28.5meters. The angle of elevation, BAC angle BAC, of the top of the minar. Let it be 450. The height AE of the student. Let it be 1.5 meters. From above coditions we can determine the height of the minar.In the figure, height of the student is CD = CB + BD.To find BC, we will use trigonometric ratios of angle A.In triangle ABC, the side BC is the opposite side in relation to known angle A.Which of the trigonometric ratios can we use? We can use the ratio has the two values that we have and the one we need to detrmine.i.e., is tanA or cotA
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VISCOSITY_PART 01
 
05:15
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: VISCOSITY:Just as surface tension is the property of liquid at rest, viscosity is the property of fluid in motion. Most of the fluids are not ideal ones. They offer some resistance to the fluid motion. When the fluid moves in the form of layers having different velocity, tends to destroy the relative motion of the different layers of the fluid. This resistance is an internal friction of fluid, similar to the friction when a solid moves on the surface of another solid. This internal friction of moving fluid is called viscosity of fluid.Thus, viscosity is the property of the fluid liquid or gas by virtue of which an internal fictional force comes into play when the fluid is in motion in the form of layers having relative motion. It opposes the relative motion of the different layers. Viscosity is also called us fluid friction.To understand viscosity of fluid, take a fluid i,e. liquid oil enclosed between two parallel glass plates as shown in Figure. Keep the bottom plate fixed and move the top plate by applying some force with a constant velocity u, relative to the fixed plate. Replace the oil with honey, we will note that a greater force is required to move the top plate with the same velocity. It shows that the honey has more internal frictional force than oil, i.e., honey is more viscous than oil. In the above experiment, the layer of liquid in contact with the surface has the same velocity as that of the surface. It means, the layer of the liquid in contact with top glass plate moves with the velocity ‘u’ and the layer of liquid in contact with the fixed glass plate is stationary. The velocity of the different layers of liquid increases uniformly from bottom zero velocity to the top layer velocity ‘u’.Every fast moving layer tends to pull forward its lower slow moving layer and every slow moving layer tends to pull backwards the upper fast moving layer. This produces a viscous force called internal frictional force or viscosity between the two layers of the liquid, which tends to destroy the relative motion of the two layers of liquid. Therefore, to maintain the relative velocity between the two layers of liquid flow, a force F equal to the viscous force acting between these two layers is to be applied tangentially on the liquid layer. Let initially BCDE be the portion of the liquid in between two parallel glass plates and be the thickness of liquid. Let A be the area of the liquid in contact with glass plate.
Views: 32442 7activestudio
PLANE OF POLARIZATION_PART 01
 
03:56
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. POLARIZATION: Introduction: The experiments on interfaces and diffraction have shown that light is a form of wave motion. These effects do not tell us about the types of wave motion i.e. whether the light waves are longitudinal or transverse, or whether the vibrations are linear, circular or torsional. The phenomenon of Polarization has helped to establish beyond doubt that light waves are transverse waves. Polarization of transverse waves:Let a rope AB be passed through two parallel slitS1 and S2. The rope is attached to a fixed point at B. Hold the end A and move the rope up and down perpendicular to AB.A wave images along CD and it is due to transverse vibrations parallel to the slit S1. The slit S2 allows the wave to pass through it when it is parallel to S1. It is observed that the slit S2 does not allow the wave to pass through it when it is at right angles to the slit S1.If the end A is moved in a circular manner, the rope will show circular motion up to the slit S1. Beyond S1, it will show only linear vibrations parallel to the slit S1, because the slit S1 will stop and the other components. If S1 and S2 are right angles to each other the rope will not show any vibration beyond S2.If longitudinal waves are setup by moving the rope forward and backward along the string, the waves will pass through S1 and S2 irrespective of their positions.A similar phenomenon has been observed in light when it passes through a tourmaline crystal. Let light from a source S fall on a tourmaline crystal A which is cut parallel to its axis.The crystal A will act as the slit S1¬. The light is slightly colored due to the natural color.
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PRINCIPLES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
 
03:39
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. GENETIC ENGINEERING: In vitro DNA technology used to isolate genes from an organism, manipulate them in laboratory as per desire and insert them into another cell system for specific genetic trait. The conceptual development of the principle of genetic engineering: The techniques of genetic engineering include creation of recombinant DNA, use of gene cloning and gene transfer which helps to isolate and introduce only one or a set of desirable genes without introducing undesirable genes into the target organism.When a piece of DNA is introduced into alien organism, this piece of DNA would not be able to multiply itself in the progeny cells of the organism. But, when it gets integrated into the genome of the recipient, it may multiply and be inherited along with the host DNA. This is because; the alien piece of DNA has become the part of the chromosome, which has the ability to replicate.The construction of an artificial recombinant DNA molecule emerged from the possibility of linking a gene encoding antibiotic resistance with the native plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium. Stanley Cohen & Herbert Boyer accomplished this in 1972 by isolating the antibiotic resistance gene by cutting out a piece of DNA from a plasmid which was responsible for conferring antibiotic resistance. The cutting of DNA at specific locations became possible with the discovery of 'molecular scissors' - restriction enzymes. The cut piece of DNA was then linked with plasmid DNA. These plasmid DNA act as vectors to transfer the piece of DNA attached to it. Plasmid is used as vector to deliver an alien piece of DNA into the host organism. The linking of antibiotic resistance gene with the plasmid vector became possible with enzyme DNA ligase, which acts on cut DNA molecules and joins their ends. This makes a new combination of circular autonomously replicating DNA created in vitro and is known as recombinant DNA.When DNA is transferred into E. coli, it could replicate using the new hosts DNA polymerase enzyme and make multiple copies. The ability to multiply copies of antibiotic resistance gene in E. coli was called cloning of antibiotic resistance gene in E. coli.
Views: 69365 7activestudio
Screw Jack
 
01:45
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Screw jack: A type of jack that consists of a threaded cylinder that is moved up or down when the handle of the jack is turned.Mechanical advantage of screw jack:When an effort is applied to the handle, the effort moves in a circle of radius "d" while "d" is the length of the rod and the block "B" moves up equal to the pitch of the screw jack. If the handle is turned through one complete revolution in a circle of radius "d" the effort moves through a distance 2πd and consequently the load is raised through a height h. Hence, the mechanical advantage is given by:M.A. = 2𝝅d/h M.A. = Distance through which the effort is moved/height through which the load is raised. We know that the pitch of the screw is very small as compared to the length of the rod, so the mechanical advantage should be very large. Due to frictional force between the different parts of screw jack, the efficiency is less than one. It is due to the reason that lot heat energy is used for overcoming the frictional forces. It should be remembered that in case of screw jack friction is a necessary part of operation, because in the absence of friction, it would unwind at once when applied force is removed.
Views: 26643 7activestudio
BURNS - CLASSIFICATION
 
04:25
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
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REFLECTION OF LIGHT
 
02:57
For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, +91- 9100061777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Reflection of lightDefinition: When light ray strikes the boundary of two media such as air and glass, a part of light is turned back into the same medium. This is called reflection of light.A highly polished surface, such as a mirror, reflects most of the light falling on it.Laws of reflection: 1.The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection, and 2.The incident ray, the normal to the mirror at the point of incidence and the reflected ray, all lie in the same plane.These laws are applicable to all types of reflecting surfaces including spherical surfaces.Types of reflection: The types of reflection are regular reflection and irregular or diffused reflection.Regularreflection.It occurs when a beam of light falls on a smooth and polished surface such as a plane mirror. Irregular reflection. It occurs when a beam of light falls on a rough surface such as wall of a room.Incident ray:Light ray striking a reflecting surfacePoints of incidence:The point at which the incident ray strikes the reflecting surface.Reflectedray:The light ray obtained after reflection from the surface, in the same medium in which the.incident ray is travelling. Normal:The perpendicular drawn to the surface at the point of incidence. Angle of incidence:The angle which the incident ray makes with the normal at the point of incidence. It is denoted by the letter i.Angle of reflection:The angle which the reflected ray makes with the normal at the point of incidence.It is denoted by the letter r.Plane of incidence:The plane containing the incident ray and the normal. Plane of reflection:The plane containing the reflected ray and the normal
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ECHINODERMATA GENERAL CHARECTERS
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the Phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin")[2] of marine animals. The adults are recognizable by their (usually five-point) radial symmetry, and include such well-known animals as starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers, as well as the sea lilies or "stone lilies".[3] Echinoderms are found at every ocean depth, from the intertidal zone to the abyssal zone. The phylum contains about 7000 living species,[4] making it the second-largest grouping of deuterostomes (a superphylum), after the chordates (which include the vertebrates, such as birds, fishes, mammals, and reptiles). Echinoderms are also the largest phylum that has no freshwater or terrestrial (land-based) representatives.
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KEPLER'S LAW OF PLANETARY MOTION
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ 7activestudio@gmail.com Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use. KEPLER'S LAW OF PLANETARY MOTION can be stated as follows: (1) All planets move about the Sun in elliptical orbits, having the Sun as one of the foci. (2) A radius vector joining any planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal lengths of time. (3) The squares of the sidereal periods (of revolution) of the planets are directly proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the Sun. Knowledge of these laws, especially the second (the law of areas), proved crucial to Sir Isaac Newton in 1684–85, when he formulated his famous law of gravitation between Earth and the Moon and between the Sun and the planets, postulated by him to have validity for all objects anywhere in the universe.
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POTENTIAL DUE TO A POINT CHARGE
 
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For more information: http://www.7activestudio.com info@7activestudio.com http://www.7activemedical.com/ info@7activemedical.com http://www.sciencetuts.com/ Contact: +91- 9700061777, 040-64501777 / 65864777 7 Active Technology Solutions Pvt.Ltd. is an educational 3D digital content provider for K-12. We also customise the content as per your requirement for companies platform providers colleges etc . 7 Active driving force "The Joy of Happy Learning" -- is what makes difference from other digital content providers. We consider Student needs, Lecturer needs and College needs in designing the 3D & 2D Animated Video Lectures. We are carrying a huge 3D Digital Library ready to use.
Views: 14759 7activestudio