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Genetics part 1 introduction to advanced genetics

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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Mendelian inheritance was initially derived from the work of Gregor Johann Mendel published in 1865 and 1866 which was re-discovered in 1900. It was initially very controversial. When Mendel's theories were integrated with the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1915, they became the core of classical genetics. The laws of inheritance were derived by Gregor Mendel, a nineteenth-century Austrian monk conducting hybridization experiments in garden peas (Pisum sativum).[1] Between 1856 and 1863, he cultivated and tested some 5,000 pea plants. From these experiments, he deduced two generalizations which later became known as Mendel's Principles of Heredity or Mendelian inheritance. He described these principles in a two-part paper, Experiments on Plant Hybridization, that he read to the Natural History Society of Brno on February 8 and March 8, 1865, and which was published in 1866.[2] Mendel's conclusions were largely ignored. Although they were not completely unknown to biologists of the time, they were not seen as generally applicable, even by Mendel himself, who thought they only applied to certain categories of species or traits. A major block to understanding their significance was the importance attached by 19th-century biologists to the apparent blending of inherited traits in the overall appearance of the progeny, now known to be due to multigene interactions, in contrast to the organ-specific binary characters studied by Mendel.[1] In 1900, however, his work was "re-discovered" by three European scientists, Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and Erich von Tschermak. The exact nature of the "re-discovery" has been somewhat debated: De Vries published first on the subject, mentioning Mendel in a footnote, while Correns pointed out Mendel's priority after having read De Vries's paper and realizing that he himself did not have priority. De Vries may not have acknowledged truthfully how much of his knowledge of the laws came from his own work, or came only after reading Mendel's paper. Later scholars have accused Von Tschermak of not truly understanding the results at all.[1] Regardless, the "re-discovery" made Mendelism an important but controversial theory. Its most vigorous promoter in Europe was William Bateson, who coined the terms "genetics" and "allele" to describe many of its tenets. The model of heredity was highly contested by other biologists because it implied that heredity was discontinuous, in opposition to the apparently continuous variation observable for many traits. Many biologists also dismissed the theory because they were not sure it would apply to all species. However, later work by biologists and statisticians such as R. A. Fisher showed that if multiple Mendelian factors were involved in the expression of an individual trait, they could produce the diverse results observed. Thomas Hunt Morgan and his assistants later integrated the theoretical model of Mendel with the chromosome theory of inheritance, in which the chromosomes of cells were thought to hold the actual hereditary material, and created what is now known as classical genetics, which was extremely successful and cemented Mendel's place in history. Mendel's findings allowed other scientists to predict the expression of traits on the basis of mathematical probabilities. A large contribution to Mendel's success can be traced to his decision to start his crosses only with plants he demonstrated were true-breeding. He also only measured absolute (binary) characteristics, such as color, shape, and position of the offspring, rather than quantitative characteristics. He expressed his results numerically and subjected them to statistical analysis. His method of data analysis and his large sample size gave credibility to his data. He also had the foresight to follow several successive generations (f2, f3) of pea plants and record their variations. Finally, he performed "test crosses" (back-crossing descendants of the initial hybridization to the initial true-breeding lines) to reveal the presence and proportion of recessive characters. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
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Text Comments (29)
Ira Aribam (3 months ago)
Alleles are present on sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes?
mona mirza (3 months ago)
hindi man upload kijey
Sarah Hess (3 months ago)
Their are also a rumor of a advanced evolution human experiment using artificial wombs and the collected DNA. A faster way to alter human through a selective breeding using collected DNA and a alternate then just altering or replacing genes. The babies never even have to be born and the age of the child would depend on the amount of data and their also been rumors that suggest you can use DNA instead of sperms and eggs and their have been some small amount of public release of some small amount of success in this area. Their after forced accelerated evolution and such a lab is more likely using chimpanzee unless something has changed. How would you determine the potential of the organism until it reaches a certain age? No different in a sense then a cattle men trying to improve his live stock. Perhaps their waiting for the fetus reaches a certain stage or later. Bodies portions, deformed limbs, x-rayed brains, bone density ,muscle fibers and who know what else and you can do this to some extend without artificial wombs. Thousands of years of selective breeding reduced to decades. The time frames would be determined to some extent by the testing and what age you need the organism to be before determining if the DNA is worthy to be passed on. Dog,horse, cattle men have been doing this to some extent for a thousand years and it has even been done with people to some extent but being able to collect more information and speed up the process would be very useful. My tribe has a few of those ancient European scrolls, some written on animal skins in our ancient tongue even one written on gold and silver .
D Nageshwarrao (3 months ago)
Thank very much sir
Rohit William (4 months ago)
good lecture
zaki moha abshir (5 months ago)
That's good
Shomu's Biology (5 months ago)
+zaki moha abshir you're welcome
It's really very nice sir nd very helpful also
abdull sho (6 months ago)
sir multiple factor hypothesis how to do project work
Saswati Chakraborty (7 months ago)
Brilliant teacher
akhil Nair (8 months ago)
Good techer...
Shomu's Biology (8 months ago)
+akhil Nair thankbyou
Gour Dutta (9 months ago)
sir can u make a video for meiosis in details i cudnt undrstnd d dna replication #0.3%in paxhytene anf zygotene phase....😢
Sachin Yadav (10 months ago)
plz sir Hindi me video upload kijiye
Shreyasi ghosh (1 year ago)
is there any trick to find out phenotypic and genotypic ratio for multihybrid crosses?
Yes, you have to use forked line method.
Gautam Pandey (1 year ago)
thinks sir
Alsaba Khan (1 year ago)
really awesome videos thank you so much
Alsaba Khan (1 year ago)
plz send the link of CSIR question pprs
Sonali Singh (1 year ago)
awesome , thanks sir , it's very helpful
nazish majeed (1 year ago)
Darshu karthi (1 year ago)
wonderful teaching.... tq for helping me🙏
Imaculata kazingo (1 year ago)
thanks sir,it's very intersting
Jaswant Singh (2 years ago)
thanks sir
Gayane Jamgotchian (3 years ago)
Thank you so much
Krispn Given (3 years ago)
Saso B (4 years ago)
Hi Is there a video about microRNA by u?
BozoneMe (4 years ago)
JejeBabe (4 years ago)
in your next videos can you talk about double mutants? thanks

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