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The History of Electrical Engineering: Crash Course Engineering #4

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Next stop on our tour of engineering’s major fields: electrical engineering. In this episode we’ll explore the history of telecommunications, electric power and lighting, and computers. We’ll introduce topics like magnetism, electrical conduction, telegraphy, lighting, and computers. Crash Course Engineering is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV *** RESOURCES: https://www.britannica.com/biography/William-Gilbert http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/gilbert_william.shtml http://www.sparkmuseum.com/BOOK_GRAY.HTM http://people.seas.harvard.edu/~jones/es154/lectures/lecture_2/lecture_2.html https://www.britannica.com/biography/Claude-Chappe http://people.seas.harvard.edu/~jones/cscie129/papers/Early_History_of_Data_Networks/Chapter_2.pdf https://www.britannica.com/biography/William-Fothergill-Cooke http://ethw.org/William_Fothergill_Cooke https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/connecting-britain/first-electric-telegraph/ http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-transatlantic-telegraph-cable-completed https://www.britannica.com/biography/Samuel-F-B-Morse https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexander-Graham-Bell https://www.britannica.com/biography/Heinrich-Hertz https://www.livescience.com/45641-science-of-world-war-i-communications.html https://definitions.uslegal.com/r/radio-act-of-1912/ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sir-Humphry-Davy-Baronet https://www.britannica.com/biography/Zenobe-Theophile-Gramme http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/thomas-edison http://www.history.com/news/ask-history/what-was-the-war-of-the-currents http://www.computerhistory.org/fellowawards/hall/marcian-hoff/ http://www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/addlbios/hoff.html http://www.intel4004.com/ https://www.wired.com/2009/12/1223shockley-bardeen-brattain-transistor/ https://www.history.com/topics/inventions/invention-of-the-pc *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark Brouwer, Glenn Elliott, Justin Zingsheim, Jessica Wode, Eric Prestemon, Kathrin Benoit, Tom Trval, Jason Saslow, Nathan Taylor, Divonne Holmes à Court, Brian Thomas Gossett, Khaled El Shalakany, Indika Siriwardena, SR Foxley, Sam Ferguson, Yasenia Cruz, Eric Koslow, Caleb Weeks, Tim Curwick, Evren Türkmenoğlu, D.A. Noe, Shawn Arnold, Ruth Perez, Malcolm Callis, Ken Penttinen, Advait Shinde, Cody Carpenter, Annamaria Herrera, William McGraw, Bader AlGhamdi, Vaso, Melissa Briski, Joey Quek, Andrei Krishkevich, Rachel Bright, Alex S, Mayumi Maeda, Kathy & Tim Philip, Montather, Jirat, Eric Kitchen, Moritz Schmidt, Ian Dundore, Chris Peters, Sandra Aft -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
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Text Comments (303)
djpioneer937 (2 hours ago)
indian women are so pretty
Diego Piscoya (20 hours ago)
Is control and automation going to have its own video?
Jelena (2 days ago)
okay, so u credit just the "amazing" american electrical engineers, even tho mihajlo pupin invented the telepohone, and nikola tesla the ac current? amazing job uneducated 'murica *aplause*
fd11fd33fd99 (2 days ago)
..... and the Chinese claim that they invented the Modern World! LOL... Study Electrical Engineering and you will see that not one, not a single, invention regarding electricity/computing/telecommunication/power was discovered by the Chinese.
Zachary Oaks (3 days ago)
Computer engineers of the world, unite!!
Samuel Reese (4 days ago)
To those who may scroll down here (or have already commented) to say that they missed certain prominent figures or breakthroughs that you may feel should have been mentioned in this video, there are a couple things to consider: 1) This is only the 4th in a series of videos, and at the moment we aren’t quite sure what else may be covered at a later date. 2) It’s also possible that the event or figure was covered in an episode of a different series, as is the case with James Clark Maxwell and his equations being mentioned in their series on physics, in which case it doesn’t make sense to spend too much unnecessary time on it here. 3) As others have said, many of the specific figures people have mentioned aren’t engineers at all, but rather scientists or mathematicians. While it’s still crucial to give due credit to *all* those who helped bring about these advances in engineering, the purpose of this series is to highlight the engineers themselves, as well as their creations. That said, I do love seeing the discussions in the comments about these figures and their contributions to not only these respective fields of engineering, but to engineering and science as a whole. It’s genuinely amazing to see how the influence of many individuals can create these innovations as each person builds on the foundation laid by the last, and especially to see the underlying framework laid out by some of the lesser known, but equally important, contributors.
Nate Foster (5 days ago)
She should have said: “And you’d be surprised in how much depth is involved in the history of Electrical Engineering. Well, it [might just shock you!]” (Add 2 eighth-note drums, and a crash a beat later)
Brett Bergstedt (5 days ago)
how come she didn't make a big deal about the father of electrical engineering, Nikola Tesla. he and Isaac Newton were without saying the smartest 2 guys that walk on this earth. we need someone that's on there level to sort out quantum and string theory,.
Crash Course Linguistics please!!!!
Edgar Manuel Cambaza (6 days ago)
Antonio Meucci invented the telephone, not Bell. Alberto Dumont invented the airplane, not the Write brothers. Let's start telling the truth.
Dark Guardian (3 days ago)
Okay episode but so focused on executions and glossing over of the really good stuff. Invention of the battery to electric cars and trolleybuses. Only 10 minutes and it did not do the field justice focusing on the electric chair.
shiva manish (6 days ago)
what is best to learn about robots electrical or mechanical
_Aesthetic_ For Life (6 days ago)
Lets Play A Game... >_< 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 🔴🔵 🔵🔴 What Colour Do You See... >_<?
techmagazinegroup (6 days ago)
Waiting for computer science engineering CC
Layth Abbassi (6 days ago)
No mention of Nikolai Tesla?
Gowidafloman (7 days ago)
Really? No mention of Micahel Faraday at all?!?!
Ulises Regla (7 days ago)
merely mentioned tesla
Marcus Ma (7 days ago)
Ian Alvord (7 days ago)
His description: "T, H , I, K" I see what you did there.
QWertY Magnus (8 days ago)
PhxtoNash (8 days ago)
That's really need shelf in the background. Took me awhile to notice it.
Uzumaki Ibram (8 days ago)
Thanksfor appreciating my subtitles that i wrote in bulgarian language for you, CrashCourse.... :(
Ioan Jivan (8 days ago)
Edison again :)) scumbag
Justin Fiore (8 days ago)
I like you Shini, you are cute
EiAisq (8 days ago)
anyone else notice the annoying background noises?
Average Guy27 (8 days ago)
Terrance Tarr (8 days ago)
I wish Michael Faraday and the faraday scale was mentioned
So as far as i know, when Edison tryed to use AC to electrocute animals it didnt kill them so he secretly switched to DC and called it AC. Is this not true? Because i have been working under the assumption that AC is safer than DC.
Emily E (8 days ago)
Crash Course should do a graphic design/animation course on like how they do Thought Bubble and everything! That'd be so cool
Yonatan Huber (8 days ago)
It's a little disappointing that she didn't mention bio-electronics the way she did with bio-mechanics... Still a great vid
EngiBear (9 days ago)
SymbolX (9 days ago)
Funny how British people always try to pretend they are the pioneer of science... The fact is that electricity was know way before England was something. The Baghdad battery existed many hundred years ago! Static electricity and ferromagnetism was known since Ancient Egypt!
Salman Hisham (9 days ago)
Petroleum Engineering please.
Zeev Tarantov (9 days ago)
Crash Course physics was for high schoolers, this series appears to be for grade schoolers. Will you have more depth in future episodes?
Hailey Davis (9 days ago)
You guys should do crash course music history!
Baz Snell (9 days ago)
(Quote from video) William Gilbert was the first to describe the phenomena -- magnet points down, etc.. -- No, it was a phenomenon, singular. Phenomena is lots of phenomenon(s), plural.
Tunnel Vision (9 days ago)
Fact off (9 days ago)
Πόσο καύλα είναι αυτή η μαυρούλα!!!! Θέλω να την αγκαλιάσω, να την πηδήξω και να της πω και ένα μεγάλο μπράβο για τις γνώσεις της. Ταυτόχρονα.
Torbjörn Lekberg (9 days ago)
New narrator? I like her.
Devieus (9 days ago)
She was around for CC physics.
VivaLaPol (9 days ago)
Ehh.. electronic engineering
sirkowski (9 days ago)
-And if you use Alternate Current, people will think you're gay. -One of us! One of us!
Gernuts (9 days ago)
These have been pretty weak so far imo. Are you going to go into more detail on some topics, or is this "history of science 1.2"?
Tariku Paxk (10 days ago)
Terrible giving Westinghouse so much credit for Tesla’s work as if they both developed AC. Not only that but why can’t Tesla be thanked for his creation of radio? Not enough credit to the man who’s literally the reason for what we have today. Thumbs down
John Smith (10 days ago)
So Electro-Mechanical Engineers are basically gods right? XP
Pandas 999 (10 days ago)
Can u please do a crash course on An Inspector Calls I am studying it for GCSE and after watching Jane Eyre (which helped ALOT) I would really appreciate you doing a video on it
Meet Patel (10 days ago)
Clarence Cherrone (10 days ago)
Thank you for the info on Edison! Great video!
Raymond Wong (10 days ago)
Whaaaat? No mention of the induction motor by Tesla 😕
Peter Riley (10 days ago)
Way too big a topic for a single video, though I respect the attempt. You had to leave out Faraday, Maxwell and Bose. The latter is forgivable though I think Bose is way undercredited, but you can't have EE without Maxwell's equations and Faraday's experimentalism. I understand it's crash course, but there are limits even for you guys. This should have been split either by discipline or chronology.
Thushara Rathnayake (10 days ago)
But what's the next episode
tmr9999 (10 days ago)
Not a bad video but I think that it would have been worthwhile to at least touch on industrial automation which has had a huge impact on the modern world.
Chris Gurney (10 days ago)
Passxthexaux (10 days ago)
We need a crashcourse on why there are only 2 genders and you seriously believing something you're not what you are is a mental disorder (Sex and gender is the same-if you disagree CHANGE MY MIND) P.S. - intersex is a mutation so it doesn't count
Captain Pugwash (10 days ago)
To omit the experimental work of Faraday, is mistake. Albeit that Maxwell took Faradays experimental notes and turned them into mathematical theory, from which Maxwell derived approximately 16 equations which were condensed into the 4 famous equations, still used today, by Oliver Heaviside.
siffoine (10 days ago)
So... I'm an electrical engineer now?
Brian Miller (10 days ago)
Not any more than watching 10 minutes of Matlock would make you a lawyer :).
Bryan Lim CH (10 days ago)
Talk about environmental engineering! Noise monitoring & control, sones & phons, noise rating graph, daily noise dose!
James Hoe (10 days ago)
let's have a moment of silence for William Kemmler who died like an engineer.
David Meslang (10 days ago)
Host and content are A+. She seems to be born to teach the greater public engineering. Can't wait for chemical.
反主流的娛樂家 (10 days ago)
Why did I think the title said electoral engineering?
Alex Johnson (10 days ago)
It is not an argument. Tesla had the patents, Tesla did the pioneering research, Tesla invented radio. End of story. He was quoted as saying "Marconi is a good fellow. Let him continue. He is using seventeen of my patents."
Alen Bacco (10 days ago)
God i love hearing this woman talk
Elvern Eng Hui (10 days ago)
Yeay.. I'm an Electrical and Electronics engineer.
This woman is beautiful. I’d have intercourse with her in the missionary position, strictly for procreation.
Lou Haddad (10 days ago)
Been waiting for this one, EE represent.
Sally Simpson (10 days ago)
do one on CHEMICAL ENGINEERING pleaseeeeee
Sally Simpson (10 days ago)
do one on CHEMICAL ENGINEERING pleaseeeeee
D' Otter (10 days ago)
What about electric motors?
Eric Nash (10 days ago)
That Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph looks like it could be neat to setup as a Ouija board like device in a horror movie.
Brian Miller (10 days ago)
It's pretty clever. I'm guessing it's not optimal because the letters are all sequential from top to bottom, left to right.
rampitup32 (10 days ago)
I could listen to this lady all day. Great video!
Youssef Ghoneim (10 days ago)
What can engineers do that physicists can't? I've just finished my first year of general engineering. I get so specify after my 2nd year. I've got to say that if I specify in anything other than chemical engineering (or maybe civil) then I'll feel like I would've been better off majoring in physics. I've got many reasons for this, one of them being that I love physics. I enjoy mechanics, electricity, fluids, thermodynamics, etc, which is why I chose general engineering. I also really enjoy learning about, for example, how a capacitor works not just its characteristics in a circuit and how it can be used. This was covered in electrical engineering (and in my IB diploma before that), but when we learnt about the inductor for example we skimmed through how it works and mainly focused on its characteristics and implementation in circuits (don't get me wrong I really enjoy that too). Another reason is that I haven't really heard of anything that engineers can do that physicists can't. For example, The Art of Electronics (a great book for anyone studying electrical engineering) was co-authored by a physicist not an electrical engineer. Also, my materials science lecturer actually a physics major who tailored her PhD towards materials science. Not to mention the plethora of things that physicists get to study that engineers don't (dark matter, relativity, quantum mechanics, etc). Its too late for me to switch to physics without repeating a year in uni (thats not something I'm willing to do and I'll probably end up majoring in chem eng anyway), but I still need this question answered "What can engineers do that physicists can't?" I just want to clarify that I absolutely love engineering and that even if I majored in physics I would most likely end up in an engineering-type job aka not really focusing on research. I'm also really leaning towards majoring in chemical engineering so thats good.
yondaime500 (9 days ago)
Well, I was a fan of Naruto when I made this account back in 2006 or 2007. I dropped it eventually (didn't read or watch the end of it nor Boruto) but never bothered to change the username. I think one of the most underrated courses for engineering is quality. One of the schools I went to didn't talk about it at all, and the other had a 16-hour course. But it was a pretty big deal in the first company I worked for, which designs and manufactures lab instruments. Quality gives you so many tools to measure how well projects are going and solve problems along the way, and tells you how to interact with suppliers, employees and customers to find ways to improve products and processes. It is a major on its own, but I think it's very important for an engineer to have some basic notions of it. And yes, you write *so many* reports in engineering. Eventually I started using LaTeX, in part because the source files are more organized and the result looks really good, but also because it kinda feels like programming, so it's less boring than using a WYSIWYG editor like Word.
Youssef Ghoneim (10 days ago)
Yeah I see what you mean. I do take some of these extra classes and I'll take some more in the year to come. I was initially gonna comment on how they're not a good enough factor to make me choose engineering and not physics, but I changed my mind when I started to list them out. The classes I've took so far covered some of systems engineering basically, how to come up with requirements for a project, how to achieve them, how to check that you've achieved them, also designing for a specific goal like manufacturability or usability, ethics, and report writing (not lab reports, but reports you'd write for an investor or smthg), etc. Ill be taking finance and law classes in my 3rd year hopefully. Considering that I'd prefer working in industry over doing research, these classes (which physicists don't take) are a good reason to major in engineering. Are you a naruto fan by any chance? I assume so because of your username
yondaime500 (10 days ago)
In a good engineering school, you'll learn more than physics and math. You'll learn about economics and finance, human resources and project management, because that's a large part of what an engineer does. You'll also learn about the fundamental building blocks of your field. In EE, depending on your sub-specialization, you could learn about FPGAs, microcontrollers and PCB design, or the details of induction motors, transmission lines and circuit breakers. Physicists are concerned with pushing the boundaries of Science, so they wouldn't learn about any of these applications at the university. Of course, in the end these specializations are just a bag of courses that the university thinks are necessary for the work that you'll do once you graduate, but every job is different and the world is changing very fast, so I think they're becoming less and less relevant. For most jobs you'll end up having to study a lot of things by yourself, and you won't need a lot of the things you studied at the university.
David A (10 days ago)
Isn't there some evidence that the ancient Persians / Egyptians used electricity? (Saline jugs etc)
Nathan Platt (10 days ago)
Good video again....the bookshelf however is driving me crazy.
Loving the videos! keep them coming!
Vertekx (10 days ago)
Amazing Video!
tabbyxz (10 days ago)
It'd be nice if you guys had a crash course on women's history
Jason Daniel (10 days ago)
She missed a major field of electrical engineering...controls. Manufacturing and automation wouldn't be what they are today without electrical controls engineers.
Brian Miller (10 days ago)
That and electrical power production and distribution.
Chris V (10 days ago)
Wish I could have learned more about computer engineering! I am about to start my upper divisions this fall, so excited.
Gavin Scolaro (10 days ago)
you know for a show about engineering that shelf in the background looks really unstable ;)
yondaime500 (10 days ago)
Did you know that there are reversible hydroelectric plants? They can either generate energy by letting water through the generator like a normal plant, or consume energy by turning the generator into a pump to drive water up the reservoir. So they're basically giant batteries. They can be used with solar and wind generation to store the excess power and release it when there isn't enough sunlight and wind to meet the demand.
mopar3502001 (10 days ago)
I love your videos very much. But with respect to magnetism, how is it even possible NOT to mention James Clark Maxwell? Almost everything we do as EEs use his equations to predict, model, and improve our designs. He was one of the most influential people in EE of all time. Without his work, we would likely still be living with 1800s technology as our mainstay. His (and Lenz, et al.) equations are what made telegraph, radio, microwave (the magnetron likely would have been years later if not for Maxwell (i.e., cold lunch)), television (let alone a modern day computer with a CPU containing BILLIONS of transistors), and just about every thing else possible to conceive through the mathematical modeling of magnetism. As an example, just look at how much trouble we would be in if PCB layout was done based solely upon autoroute. Nothing with frequencies even near the 1Ghz range would ever work (no PCs, no cell phones, etc.). J.C. Maxwell saves the day! He was able to make the mathematical correlation of so many different disciplines of physics, and quantize the charge carrier (because everything is somehow connected in the end! (Isaac Newton actually said that)) between Gauss, Lenz, Faraday, Ampere, and so many others. His work tied all of this together. His equations not only provide for EE, they are used in quantum mechanics, as well as in orbital mechanics. Maxwell's equations are in play at CERN every day. Not just this, but even light! He explains that even light is a magnetic wave, and makes assignments for the medical field of optometry. This man was nothing short of a genius, and his legacy must be celebrated! Thanks for making these videos!
SphincterOfDoom (7 days ago)
I think more surprising is no mention of Faraday, but taking the time to mention Humphrey Davey
Lakrids Pibe (9 days ago)
H C Ørsted!
Julio Toboso García (9 days ago)
Lucas Prado and we can call seagulls pigs, and pigs would fly 🤷🏻‍♂️😜
Julio Toboso García (9 days ago)
Adam Smith I meant more in his life. As an interesting contraposition of his methods as a theoretician. And Faraday as contraposition of a practical method. But true, it’s been done.
Adam Smith (9 days ago)
Crash Course already did a whole episode on Maxwell and his equations in the physics series.
e g (10 days ago)
I'm sorry... I wasn't paying attention. What were you saying?
outbacktrek (10 days ago)
so now we know who to shoot when g5 fries everyone's brains... (Y)
Eros (10 days ago)
Lovely 😍
Ilene Martina (10 days ago)
OMG, it's Wall-E again (on the shelf by her head)! XD
Ross Parlette (10 days ago)
When I went to MIT in the Fall of 1960, one of the frats was in an area of Boston which had DC. I don't remember why, since I was in a dorm, but I got an AC / DC / battery portable radio. Today, I can't imagine finding such a thing.
Falbert Forester (10 days ago)
Actually, though I know the type that you mean, the modern equivalent are quite common. Check out a camping / outdoor supply store for a radio that will run on AC ( with wall adaptor, sometimes sold separately ), DC (USB plug), 2 x AA batteries, and usually have a small built-in rechargeable battery, plus a solar cell built in, too, and sometimes a hand-crank dynamo.
M P (10 days ago)
what about computer engineering?
Exhausted Elox (10 days ago)
Oh man, the whole story over how and why Alexander Graham Bell got the first patent for the telephone would make for a crazy episode all on its own.
Luis Sierra (10 days ago)
You should have done 3 videos for each field. I felt this was too short
Mark Alejo (10 days ago)
Hey this is my degree.
Galfor (10 days ago)
She’s a great host.
Luis Sierra (10 days ago)
she is indeed
LocalToast (10 days ago)
egyptians and KANGZ didn't make blue fire
NVclosetmedgrower (10 days ago)
Many great civilizations function with regards to electrical engineering principals. ... except the Mongols.
Amr ElAdawy (10 days ago)
Proud to be computer engineer
oldcowbb (10 days ago)
edison hater incoming
rodrigo hernandez (10 days ago)
I have learned sooooo much from crash course!!I love the crash course team and its founders for the free education!!
xXxFaLLeNxShaDoWxXx (10 days ago)
Where the chemical engineers at?
Snow White (9 days ago)
AdmiralAckbar (10 days ago)
I really like the "backing up" construction sound in the music!
z2u (10 days ago)
stop bashing Edison-- he was a brilliany man just like others at the time including Tesla but lets get real here
michaelgerard2 (10 days ago)
White males sure have contributed a lot to the world. Why are they inherently evil to the extreme left and radical feminist?
Stephen Su (10 days ago)
salesman - Edison

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